Archivi categoria: PLOS

Development of an urban molecular xenomonitoring system for lymphatic filariasis in the Recife Metropolitan Region, Brazil

by Anita Ramesh, Mary Cameron, Kirstin Spence, Remy Hoek Spaans, Maria A. V. Melo-Santos, Marcelo H. S. Paiva, Duschinka R. D. Guedes, Rosangela M. R. Barbosa, Claudia M. F. Oliveira, André Sá, Claire L. Jeffries, Priscila M. S. Castanha, Paula A. S. Oliveira, Thomas Walker, Neal Alexander, Cynthia Braga

Introduction

Molecular xenomonitoring (MX)—pathogen detection in the mosquito rather than human—is a promising tool for lymphatic filariasis (LF) surveillance. In the Recife Metropolitan (altro…)

A genome-wide <i>Drosophila</i> epithelial tumorigenesis screen identifies Tetraspanin 29Fb as an evolutionarily conserved suppressor of Ras-driven cancer

by Tamara Zoranovic, Jan Manent, Lee Willoughby, Ricardo Matos de Simoes, John E. La Marca, Sofya Golenkina, Xia Cuiping, Susanne Gruber, Belinda Angjeli, Elisabeth Eva Kanitz, Shane J. F. Cronin, G. Gregory Neely, Andreas Wernitznig, Patrick O. Humbert, Kaylene J. Simpson, Constantine S. Mitsiades, Helena E. Richardson, Josef M. Penninger

Oncogenic mutations in the small GTPase Ras contribute to ~30% of human cancers. However, Ras mutations alone are insufficient for tumorigenesis, therefore (altro…)

Recovery of novel association loci in <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> and <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> through leveraging INDELs association and integrated burden test

by Baoxing Song, Richard Mott, Xiangchao Gan

Short insertions, deletions (INDELs) and larger structural variants have been increasingly employed in genetic association studies, but few improvements over SNP-based association have been reported. In order to understand why this might be the case, we analysed two publicly available datasets and observed that 63% of INDELs called in A. thaliana and 64% in D. melanogaster populations are misrepresented as multiple alleles with different functional (altro…)

A novel framework for inferring parameters of transmission from viral sequence data

by Casper K. Lumby, Nuno R. Nene, Christopher J. R. Illingworth

Transmission between hosts is a critical part of the viral lifecycle. Recent studies of viral transmission have used genome sequence data to evaluate the number of particles transmitted between hosts, and the role of selection as it operates during the transmission process. However, the interpretation of sequence data describing transmission events is a challenging task. We here present a novel and (altro…)

ProxECAT: Proxy External Controls Association Test. A new case-control gene region association test using allele frequencies from public controls

by Audrey E. Hendricks, Stephen C. Billups, Hamish N. C. Pike, I. Sadaf Farooqi, Eleftheria Zeggini, Stephanie A. Santorico, Inês Barroso, Josée Dupuis

A primary goal of the recent investment in sequencing is to detect novel genetic associations in health and disease improving the development of treatments and playing a critical role in precision medicine. While this investment has resulted in an enormous total number of sequenced genomes, individual studies of complex (altro…)

Correction: Elucidation of molecular kinetic schemes from macroscopic traces using system identification

by Miguel Fribourg, Diomedes E. Logothetis, Javier González-Maeso, Stuart C. Sealfon, Belén Galocha-Iragüen, Fernando Las-Heras Andrés, Vladimir Brezina

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Prevalence of and reasons for women’s, family members’, and health professionals’ preferences for cesarean section in China: A mixed-methods systematic review

by Qian Long, Carol Kingdon, Fan Yang, Michael Dominic Renecle, Shayesteh Jahanfar, Meghan A. Bohren, Ana Pilar Betran

Background

China has witnessed a rapid increase of cesarean section (CS) rates in recent years. Several non-clinical factors have been cited as contributing to this trend including maternal request and perceived convenience. We aimed to assess preferences for mode of delivery and reasons for preferences for CS in China to inform the development of (altro…)

Cesarean section in China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong—A safe choice for women and clinicians?

by Mairead Black, Sohinee Bhattacharya

Mairead Black and Sohinee Bhattacharya discuss research findings on preferences for cesarean delivery in Asian settings and share their Perspective on facilitating woman-centered birth choices in China following the end of the one-child policy.

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Note sul Copyright: Articles and accompanying materials published by PLOS on the PLOS Sites, unless otherwise indicated, are licensed by the respective authors of such articles for use and distribution by you (altro…)

Nicotine exposure of male mice produces behavioral impairment in multiple generations of descendants

by Deirdre M. McCarthy, Thomas J. Morgan Jr., Sarah E. Lowe, Matthew J. Williamson, Thomas J. Spencer, Joseph Biederman, Pradeep G. Bhide

Use of tobacco products is injurious to health in men and women. However, tobacco use by pregnant women receives greater scrutiny because it can also compromise the health of future generations. More men smoke cigarettes than women. Yet the impact of nicotine use by men upon their descendants has not (altro…)

Location, seasonal, and functional characteristics of water holding containers with juvenile and pupal<i>Aedes aegypti</i> in Southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional study using hurdle model analyses

by Chia-Hsien Lin, Karin Linda Schiøler, Claus Thorn Ekstrøm, Flemming Konradsen

Background

Aedes aegypti carries several viruses of public health importance, including the dengue virus. Dengue is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. Prevention and control of dengue mainly rely on mosquito control as there is no antiviral treatment or a WHO-approved vaccine. To reduce the Ae. aegypti population, studying the characteristics of their habitats is necessary. Aedes (altro…)

Modification and optimization of the FECPAK<sup>G2</sup> protocol for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth eggs in human stool

by Mio Ayana, Johnny Vlaminck, Piet Cools, Shaali Ame, Marco Albonico, Daniel Dana, Jennifer Keiser, Helen Manly, Leonardo F. Matoso, Zeleke Mekonnen, Antonio Montresor, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Laura Rinaldi, Somphou Sayasone, Lensa Tesfaye, Jozef Vercruysse, Greg Mirams, Bruno Levecke

Background

Standard diagnosis of human soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections is based on the microscopic detection of helminth eggs in stool and supports programmatic decision making in control programs. However, the current standard diagnostic techniques (altro…)

Vector competence of <i>Aedes bromeliae</i> and <i>Aedes vitattus</i> mosquito populations from Kenya for chikungunya virus

by Francis Mulwa, Joel Lutomiah, Edith Chepkorir, Samwel Okello, Fredrick Eyase, Caroline Tigoi, Michael Kahato, Rosemary Sang

Background

Kenya has experienced outbreaks of chikungunya in the past years with the most recent outbreak occurring in Mandera in the northern region in May 2016 and in Mombasa in the coastal region from November 2017 to February 2018. Despite the outbreaks in Kenya, studies on vector competence have only been conducted on Aedes aegypti. (altro…)

The cellular phenotype of cytoplasmic incompatibility in <i>Culex pipiens</i> in the light of <i>cidB</i> diversity

by Manon Bonneau, Frédéric Landmann, Pierrick Labbé, Fabienne Justy, Mylène Weill, Mathieu Sicard

Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria, widespread among arthropods thanks to host reproductive manipulations that increase their prevalence into host populations. The most commonly observed manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI leads to embryonic death in crosses between i) infected males and uninfected females and ii) individuals infected with incompatible Wolbachia strains. CI can be conceptualized as a toxin-antidote (altro…)

SNX8 modulates innate immune response to DNA virus by mediating trafficking and activation of MITA

by Jin Wei, Huan Lian, Wei Guo, Yun-Da Chen, Xia-Nan Zhang, Ru Zang, Li Zhong, Qing Yang, Ming-Ming Hu, Wei-Wei Luo, Hong-Bing Shu, Shu Li

MITA (also called STING) is a central adaptor protein in innate immune response to cytosolic DNA. Cellular trafficking of MITA from the ER to perinuclear microsomes after DNA virus infection is critical for MITA activation and onset of innate antiviral response. Here we found that SNX8 is (altro…)

Streptococcal Lancefield polysaccharides are critical cell wall determinants for human Group IIA secreted phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> to exert its bactericidal effects

by Vincent P. van Hensbergen, Elin Movert, Vincent de Maat, Christian Lüchtenborg, Yoann Le Breton, Gérard Lambeau, Christine Payré, Anna Henningham, Victor Nizet, Jos A. G. van Strijp, Britta Brügger, Fredric Carlsson, Kevin S. McIver, Nina M. van Sorge

Human Group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (hGIIA) is an acute phase protein with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Infection models in hGIIA transgenic mice have suggested the importance of hGIIA as an innate (altro…)

A synonymous <i>RET</i> substitution enhances the oncogenic effect of an in-<i>cis</i> missense mutation by increasing constitutive splicing efficiency

by Valeria Pecce, Marialuisa Sponziello, Giuseppe Damante, Francesca Rosignolo, Cosimo Durante, Livia Lamartina, Giorgio Grani, Diego Russo, Cira Rosaria di Gioia, Sebastiano Filetti, Antonella Verrienti

Synonymous mutations continue to be filtered out from most large-scale cancer genome studies, but several lines of evidence suggest they can play driver roles in neoplastic disease. We investigated a case of an aggressive, apparently sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) harboring a somatic RET p.Cys634Arg mutation (a (altro…)

Correction: Epistatic control of intrinsic resistance by virulence genes in <i>Listeria</i>

by Mariela Scortti, Lei Han, Sonsiray Alvarez, Alexandre Leclercq, Alexandra Moura, Marc Lecuit, Jose Vazquez-Boland

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Internal but not external noise frees working memory resources

by Ivan Tomić, Paul M. Bays

The precision with which visual information can be recalled from working memory declines as the number of items in memory increases. This finding has been explained in terms of the distribution of a limited representational resource between items. Here we investigated how the sensory strength of memoranda affects resource allocation. We manipulated signal strength of an orientation stimulus in two ways: we varied the internal (sensory) (altro…)

Population sampling affects pseudoreplication

by Crispin Y. Jordan

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Training in experimental design and statistics is essential: Response to Jordan

by Stanley E. Lazic, Charlie J. Clarke-Williams, Marcus R. Munafò

This Formal Comment responds to Jordan et al., and stresses that if scientific findings are to be robust, training in experimental design and statistics is critical to ensure that research questions, design considerations, and analyses are aligned.

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Note sul Copyright: Articles and accompanying materials published by PLOS on the PLOS Sites, unless otherwise indicated, are licensed by the respective authors of (altro…)

Fifteen years in, what next for <i>PLOS Biology</i>?

by The PLOS Biology Staff Editors

As we celebrate our anniversary, the PLOS Biology editors discuss recent initiatives taken by the journal (meta-research, complementary research policy, preprint posting, short reports, methods and resources, data policy, protocols.io) and look ahead to the next fifteen years.

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Note sul Copyright: Articles and accompanying materials published by PLOS on the PLOS Sites, unless otherwise indicated, are licensed by the respective authors of such articles (altro…)

Multimodal sensory information is represented by a combinatorial code in a sensorimotor system

by Rosangela Follmann, Christopher John Goldsmith, Wolfgang Stein

A ubiquitous feature of the nervous system is the processing of simultaneously arriving sensory inputs from different modalities. Yet, because of the difficulties of monitoring large populations of neurons with the single resolution required to determine their sensory responses, the cellular mechanisms of how populations of neurons encode different sensory modalities often remain enigmatic. We studied multimodal information encoding in a small sensorimotor system (altro…)

High-resolution frequency tuning but not temporal coding in the human cochlea

by Eric Verschooten, Christian Desloovere, Philip X. Joris

Frequency tuning and phase-locking are two fundamental properties generated in the cochlea, enabling but also limiting the coding of sounds by the auditory nerve (AN). In humans, these limits are unknown, but high resolution has been postulated for both properties. Electrophysiological recordings from the AN of normal-hearing volunteers indicate that human frequency tuning, but not phase-locking, exceeds the resolution observed in animal models.

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Risk factors for HTLV-1 infection in Central Africa: A rural population-based survey in Gabon

by Delia Doreen Djuicy, Augustin Mouinga-Ondémé, Olivier Cassar, Jill-Léa Ramassamy, Antony Idam Mamimandjiami, Rodrigue Bikangui, Arnaud Fontanet, Antoine Gessain

Background

Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human oncoretrovirus that infects at least 5 to 10 million people worldwide and is associated with severe diseases. Africa appears as the largest HTLV-1 endemic area. However, the risk factors for the acquisition of HTLV-1 remain poorly understood in Central Africa.

Methods

We conducted (altro…)

Concurrent infection with <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> confers robust protection against secondary infection in macaques

by Anthony M. Cadena, Forrest F. Hopkins, Pauline Maiello, Allison F. Carey, Eileen A. Wong, Constance J. Martin, Hannah P. Gideon, Robert M. DiFazio, Peter Andersen, Philana Ling Lin, Sarah M. Fortune, JoAnne L. Flynn

For many pathogens, including most targets of effective vaccines, infection elicits an immune response that confers significant protection against reinfection. There has been significant debate as to whether natural Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection confers protection against reinfection. (altro…)

SETD2-dependent H3K36me3 plays a critical role in epigenetic regulation of the HPV31 life cycle

by Dipendra Gautam, Bryan Johnson, Michelle Mac, Cary A. Moody

The life cycle of HPV is tied to the differentiation status of its host cell, with productive replication, late gene expression and virion production restricted to the uppermost layers of the stratified epithelium. HPV DNA is histone-associated, exhibiting a chromatin structure similar to that of the host chromosome. Although HPV chromatin is subject to histone post-translational modifications, how the viral life cycle (altro…)

MutLγ promotes repeat expansion in a Fragile X mouse model while EXO1 is protective

by Xiaonan Zhao, Yongwei Zhang, Kenneth Wilkins, Winfried Edelmann, Karen Usdin

The Fragile X-related disorders (FXDs) are Repeat Expansion Diseases resulting from an expansion of a CGG-repeat tract at the 5’ end of the FMR1 gene. The mechanism responsible for this unusual mutation is not fully understood. We have previously shown that mismatch repair (MMR) complexes, MSH2/MSH3 (MutSβ) and MSH2/MSH6 (MutSα), together with Polβ, a DNA polymerase important for base excision repair (altro…)

Genome amplification and cellular senescence are hallmarks of human placenta development

by Philipp Velicky, Gudrun Meinhardt, Kerstin Plessl, Sigrid Vondra, Tamara Weiss, Peter Haslinger, Thomas Lendl, Karin Aumayr, Mario Mairhofer, Xiaowei Zhu, Birgit Schütz, Roberta L. Hannibal, Robert Lindau, Beatrix Weil, Jan Ernerudh, Jürgen Neesen, Gerda Egger, Mario Mikula, Clemens Röhrl, Alexander E. Urban, Julie Baker, Martin Knöfler, Jürgen Pollheimer

Genome amplification and cellular senescence are commonly associated with pathological processes. While physiological roles for polyploidization and senescence have been described in mouse (altro…)

Antimicrobial peptides modulate long-term memory

by Raquel Barajas-Azpeleta, Jianping Wu, Jason Gill, Ryan Welte, Chris Seidel, Sean McKinney, Stephane Dissel, Kausik Si

Antimicrobial peptides act as a host defense mechanism and regulate the commensal microbiome. To obtain a comprehensive view of genes contributing to long-term memory we performed mRNA sequencing from single Drosophila heads following behavioral training that produces long-lasting memory. Surprisingly, we found that Diptericin B, an immune peptide with antimicrobial activity, is upregulated following behavioral (altro…)

Host genetics and the rumen microbiome jointly associate with methane emissions in dairy cows

by Gareth Frank Difford, Damian Rafal Plichta, Peter Løvendahl, Jan Lassen, Samantha Joan Noel, Ole Højberg, André-Denis G. Wright, Zhigang Zhu, Lise Kristensen, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Goutam Sahana

Cattle and other ruminants produce large quantities of methane (~110 million metric tonnes per annum), which is a potent greenhouse gas affecting global climate change. Methane (CH4) is a natural by-product of gastro-enteric microbial fermentation of feedstuffs in the rumen and contributes (altro…)

State dependence of stimulus-induced variability tuning in macaque MT

by Joseph A. Lombardo, Matthew V. Macellaio, Bing Liu, Stephanie E. Palmer, Leslie C. Osborne

Behavioral states marked by varying levels of arousal and attention modulate some properties of cortical responses (e.g. average firing rates or pairwise correlations), yet it is not fully understood what drives these response changes and how they might affect downstream stimulus decoding. Here we show that changes in state modulate the tuning of response variance-to-mean ratios (Fano (altro…)

What to know before forecasting the flu

by Prithwish Chakraborty, Bryan Lewis, Stephen Eubank, John S. Brownstein, Madhav Marathe, Naren Ramakrishnan

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Saving the horseshoe crab: A synthetic alternative to horseshoe crab blood for endotoxin detection

by Tom Maloney, Ryan Phelan, Naira Simmons

Horseshoe crabs have been integral to the safe production of vaccines and injectable medications for the past 40 years. The bleeding of live horseshoe crabs, a process that leaves thousands dead annually, is an ecologically unsustainable practice for all four species of horseshoe crab and the shorebirds that rely on their eggs as a primary food source during spring migration. Populations of both horseshoe crabs (altro…)

A systematic review of antimicrobial resistance in <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovar Typhi, the etiological agent of typhoid

by Carl D. Britto, Vanessa K. Wong, Gordan Dougan, Andrew J. Pollard

Background

The temporal and spatial change in trends of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in typhoid have not been systematically studied, and such information will be critical for defining intervention, as well as planning sustainable prevention strategies.

Methodology and findings

To identify the phenotypic trends in AMR, 13,833 individual S. Typhi isolates, reported from 1973 to 2018 in 62 publications, were analysed (altro…)

Predictive risk mapping of an environmentally-driven infectious disease using spatial Bayesian networks: A case study of leptospirosis in Fiji

by Helen J. Mayfield, Carl S. Smith, John H. Lowry, Conall H. Watson, Michael G. Baker, Mike Kama, Eric J. Nilles, Colleen L. Lau

Introduction

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease responsible for over 1 million severe cases and 60,000 deaths annually. The wide range of animal hosts and complex environmental drivers of transmission make targeted interventions challenging, particularly when restricted to regression-based analyses which have limited ability to deal with complexity. In (altro…)

A gene expression comparison of <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i> and <i>Trypanosoma congolense</i> in the bloodstream of the mammalian host reveals species-specific adaptations to density-dependent development

by Eleanor Silvester, Alasdair Ivens, Keith R. Matthews

In the bloodstream of mammalian hosts Trypanosoma brucei undergoes well-characterised density-dependent growth control and developmental adaptation for transmission. This involves the differentiation from proliferative, morphologically ‘slender’ forms to quiescent ‘stumpy’ forms that preferentially infect the tsetse fly vector. Another important livestock trypanosome, Trypanosoma congolense, also undergoes density-dependent cell-cycle arrest although this is not linked to obvious morphological transformation. Here we have compared the gene (altro…)

Estimating the economic impact of canine rabies to Viet Nam 2005–2014

by Stephanie A. Shwiff, Vienna R. Brown, Thu Trang Dao, Julie Elser, Hoang Xuan Trung, Nguyen Ngoc Tien, Nguyen Thi Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Karina Ernst, Steven Shwiff, David Payne

The global economic impact of canine rabies has been estimated by several studies. Asia bears a disproportionate burden of this zoonosis due to high levels of human deaths and rates of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), but low investment in preventative (altro…)

Rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside) modulates the hemostatic disturbances and redox imbalance induced by <i>Bothrops jararaca</i> snake venom in mice

by Ana Teresa Azevedo Sachetto, Jaqueline Gomes Rosa, Marcelo Larami Santoro

Snakebites are a major Collective Health problem worldwide. In Brazil, Bothrops jararaca snake venom (BjV) evokes hemostatic disturbances, bleeding manifestations, and redox status imbalance. Specific antivenom therapy, although efficacious to revert most snakebite-induced manifestations, is incapable of treating secondary manifestations, such as oxidative/nitrosative stress. Searching for new complementary therapies that could attenuate physiological derangements triggered by envenomation, we elected to test (altro…)

Optimising sampling regimes and data collection to inform surveillance for trachoma control

by Amy Pinsent, T. Dèirdre Hollingsworth

It is estimated that 190 million individuals are at risk of blindness from trachoma, and that control by mass drug administration (MDA) is reducing this risk in many populations. Programs are monitored using prevalence of follicular trachoma disease (TF) in children. However, as programs progress to low prevalence there are challenges interpreting this indirect measure of infection. PCR and sero-surveillance are being considered as complementary tools (altro…)