Dengue seroprevalence in a cohort of schoolchildren and their siblings in Yucatan, Mexico (2015-2016)

by Norma Pavía-Ruz, Gloria Abigail Barrera-Fuentes, Salha Villanueva-Jorge, Azael Che-Mendoza, Julio César Campuzano-Rincón, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Diana Patricia Rojas, Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec, M. Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M. Longini, Héctor Gómez-Dantés

Background

The implementation of vector control interventions and potential introduction new tools requires baseline data to evaluate their direct and indirect effects. The objective of the study is to present the seroprevalence of dengue infection in a cohort of children 0 to 15 years old followed during 2015 to 2016, the risk factors and the role of enhanced surveillance strategies in three urban sites (Merida, Ticul and Progreso) in Yucatan, Mexico.

Methods

A cohort of school children and their family members was randomly selected in three urban areas with different demographic, social conditions and levels of transmission. We included results from 1,844 children aged 0 to 15 years. Serum samples were tested for IgG, NS1 and IgM. Enhanced surveillance strategies were established in schools (absenteeism) and cohort families (toll-free number).

Results

Seroprevalence in children 0 to 15 years old was 46.8 (CI 95% 44.1–49.6) with no difference by sex except in Ticul. Prevalence increased with age and was significantly lower in 0 to 5 years old (26.9%, 95% CI:18.4–35.4) compared with 6 to 8 years old (43.9%, 95% CI:40.1–47.7) and 9 to 15 years old (61.4%, 95% CI:58.0–64.8). Sharing the domestic space with other families increased the risk 1.7 times over the individual families that own or rented their house, while risk was significantly higher when kitchen and bathroom were outside. Complete protection with screens in doors and windows decreased risk of infection. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the medium and high risk areas.

Conclusions

The prevalence of antibodies in children 0 to 15 years in three urban settings in the state of Yucatan describe the high exposure and the heterogenous transmission of dengue virus by risk areas and between schools in the study sites. The enhanced surveillance strategy was useful to improve detection of dengue cases with the coincident transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses.

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