by Shinji Saito, Kaori Sano, Tadaki Suzuki, Akira Ainai, Yuki Taga, Tomonori Ueno, Koshiro Tabata, Kumpei Saito, Yuji Wada, Yuki Ohara, Haruko Takeyama, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama, Kiyoko Ogawa-Goto, Pretty Multihartina, Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna Nur Andriana Pangesti, Hideki Hasegawa
Mucosal immunoglobulins comprise mainly secretory IgA antibodies (SIgAs), which are the major contributor to pathogen-specific immune responses in mucosal tissues. These SIgAs are highly heterogeneous in terms of their quaternary structure. A recent report shows that the polymerization status of SIgA defines their functionality in the human upper respiratory mucosa. Higher order polymerization of SIgA (i.e., tetramers) leads to a marked increase in neutralizing activity against influenza viruses. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of SIgA polymerization remain elusive. Here, we developed a method for generating recombinant tetrameric monoclonal SIgAs. We then compared the anti-viral activities of these tetrameric SIgAs, which possessed variable regions identical to that of a broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody F045-092 against influenza A viruses, with that of monomeric IgG or IgA. The tetrameric SIgA showed anti-viral inhibitory activity superior to that of other forms only when the antibody exhibits low-affinity binding to the target. By contrast, SIgA tetramerization did not substantially modify anti-viral activity against targets with high-affinity binding. Taken together, the data suggest that tetramerization of SIgA improved target breadth, but not peak potency of antiviral functions of the broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody. This phenomenon presumably represents one of the mechanisms by which SIgAs present in human respiratory mucosa prevent infection by antigen-drifted influenza viruses. Understanding the mechanisms involved in cross neutralization of viruses by SIgAs might facilitate the development of vaccine strategies against viral infection of mucosal tissues.
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