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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Sociologia Chinesa: Autoplastia, by 
Daniel Jerome Macgowan

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Title: Sociologia Chinesa: Autoplastia

Author: Daniel Jerome Macgowan

Translator: Demétrio Cinatti

Release Date: December 2, 2008 [EBook #27388]

Language: Portuguese

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1

*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK SOCIOLOGIA CHINESA: AUTOPLASTIA ***




Produced by Pedro Saborano (produced from scanned images
of public domain material from Google Book Search)






SOCIEDADE DE GEOGRAPHIA DE LISBOA


SOCIOLOGIA CHINESA


AUTOPLASTIA

TRANSFORMAÇÃO DO HOMEM EM ANIMAL
ESTIOLAMENTO E ATROPHIA HUMANA, CASOS DE TERATOLOGIA.

PELO

DR. MACGOWAN


NOTA DESTINADA Á X SESSÃO

DO

CONGRESSO INTERNACIONAL DOS ORIENTALISTAS

PELO TRADUCTOR

DEMETRIO CINATTI

S. S. G. L.

Logotipo da S.G.L.

LISBOA
IMPRENSA NACIONAL
1892

AUTOPLASTIA1

TRANSFORMAÇÃO DO HOMEM EM ANIMAL NA CHINA

Proclamações officiaes e noticias publicadas pelas folhas periodicas sobre a recrudescencia do roubo de creanças, nesta (Kuangsi) e nas provincias adjacentes2 revelam dous factos importantes da Sociologia Chinesa. Consiste o primeiro na crença de que os que roubam gente possuem certas drogas que, administradas ás victimas, as põem sob completo imperio da vontade do propinador, assumpto de que não vou agora occupar-me. O segundo facto informa-nos que as drogas produzem a aphasia tornando o individuo inteiramente incapaz de fallar, e, estiolado este, pela reclusão em logar completamente escuro, ou deformado por mutilação, faz-se d'elle objecto appropriado para os pelotiqueiros exhibirem ao publico. Mas, ainda que estes flagellantes crimes sejam offensa capital, não são susceptiveis de completa repressão. Infelizmente estes actos de inhumanidade praticados no homem pelo homem, apenas indicam uma parte das atrocidades praticadas pelos roubadores de gente. De todas as torturas que o odio politico e religioso tem inventado, nada excede o queimar e esfolar em vivo. Mas se a extracção da pelle se fizer por operações successivas, parte por parte, como se faz ao individuo roubado para o transformar em homem animal, os soffrimentos devem ser agonisantes, alem do que a imaginação pode conceber. É o que acontece quando a pelle humana se remove para a substituir pela do animal, urso ou cão, porque em tal caso só pequenas secções se podem praticar de cada vez, afim de que o individuo possa sobreviver.

Que longo periodo não é necessario para conseguir o processo completo de transformar o homem em animal?! Que martyrisantes torturas lhe não inflingem antes de adquirir a apparencia e condição do bruto?! O embrutecimento está longe do seu fim quando a pelle do animal se adaptou á carne do homem.

Falta ainda emmudecel-o, destruindo-lhe as cordas vocaes, o que se obtem, affirma-se, pelo emprego de carvão. Não é preciso destruir-lhe a faculdade de ouvir, mas a victima é sujeita a um regimen muito egual ao que soffreu Gaspar Stanse. O Hupao3 descreve o apparecimento de um homem transformado artificialmente em besta, que foi exhibido no Quiangsi. Todo o seu corpo era coberto de pello do cão, que fôra substituido pela sua propria derme ou verdadeira pelle. Andava de pé (muitas vezes são mutilados de forma que só possam andar com as mãos no chão) podia pronunciar uns sons inarticulados, sentar se, pôr-se de pé, fazer cumprimentos á chinesa e, emfim, conduzir-se em geral como um ser humano. O magistrado, tendo ouvido fallar no homem animal, deu ordem para que o trouxessem ao seu palacio, onde o felpudo do corpo e o todo selvagem causaram admiração e terror. «Sois vós um ente humano?» perguntou o magistrado ao extraordinario individuo, que respondeu com um aceno affirmativo de cabeça. «Podeis escrever?» Novo aceno de cabeça affirmativamente feito, foi a resposta; mas quando lhe deram um pincel4 não poude escrever por não poder pegar-lhe. Lançou-se, porém, cinzas no chão, e o homem-cão, abaixando-se, escreveu cinco caracteres que representavam o seu nome e a terra da sua naturalidade Changtung. Inqueritos subsequentes revelaram o facto de haver sido roubado; o seu captiveiro, e as horriveis operações de que fôra victima. O seu dono foi punido, é claro, com a pena capital, porque declarou que só um d'entre cinco sobrevivera á operação.

Conhecem os leitores não professionaes a operação denominada taliacoção, porque a terão lido nas encyclopedias. O seu nome é tirado de Taliacotius, cirurgião italiano do seculo XVI. Consiste em transplantar a pelle, como quando se substitue o nariz pelo tegumento da testa ou pela carne do braço, operação particular a que se chama rhinoplastia. Ainda que não haja noticia de que os chineses praticassem esta arte, sabiam que a pelle de um animal pode ser adaptada a outro que haja sido escoriado para esse fim, muito antes da anatomia e cirurgia serem estudadas e ensinadas em Bolonha.

Menos horrivel, se bem que espantosamente cruel, é a revelação de uma monstruosidade artificial que encontro entre as minhas notas teratologicas e que, consiste em fazer um parasita humano pela adhesão de uma creança a um homem, thorax com o thorax, formando-se por assim dizer uma epiphito animal. A união produz-se pela extracção da pelle dos dois pacientes ligando-os depois de maneira que as regiões escoriadas fiquem em contacto, até se effectuar a adhesão pela ligação vascular5.

Assim se preparam as infelizes creaturas para se mostrarem ao publico, conservando-se a creança suspensa por fitas appropriadas. A privação de luz por alguns annos dá ás creanças uma apparencia mui curiosa, especialmente quando lhes destroem a voz por meio de drogas e se lhes manteem a existencia com dieta particular. Um bonzo do Hingpo diz a tradição, sujeitara uma creança roubada a esse tratamento para ser apresentada como Budha. O estiolamento era completo, porque nem um raio de sol chegava ao individuo, que parecia de cera quando tirado da cella subterranea em que permanecera, o que fazia imaginar os espectadores que se sustentava só de toucinho e assucar branco. Curvado e de mãos postas, apresentava a apparencia de um monge em extasis e absorvido em contemplação. Conservando-se sempre nessa postura, não ouvindo nunca uma unica voz a não ser a do seu guarda, tornou-se um simples idiota, quasi um vegetal. Saciada a curiosidade publica, minguaram as offertas, e portanto fixou-se um dia para a sua cremação.

Comtudo, um resto de intelligencia que conservava ainda esse desvitalisado cerebro, deixou-lhe comprehender que ia ser queimado, o que o magistrado do logar evitou, porque vendo deslizar uma lagrima d'aquelles olhos sem brilho, ao longo das faces immoveis, descobriu a piedosa fraude e por subsequente inquerito os factos acima narrados. O bonzo escapou pela fuga e o templo foi derrubado. Uma illustração das atrocidades que ás vezes accompanham o roubo de creança, foi descoberta em Changhae pouco tempo depois da abertura d'esse porto. Foi ali exhibida uma creança cuja cabeça indicava ter chegado já á maioridade, tendo porem o tronco o os restantes membros dimensões infantis. O atrophiamento tivera logar pela conservação do individuo dentro de uma jarra durante muitos annos, só com a cabeça de fora durante esse longo periodo. Essa exhibição foi prohibida pelo prefeito.

Por estes casos se verá a razão por que o crime de roubar creanças é considerado pelos tribunaes chineses como dos mais graves, e porque os seus autores são tão detestados e execrados pelo povo.

1 Autor e traductor dizem sempre:—autoplastia,—e realmente esta palavra emprega-se tambem no sentido contrario ao que a sua formação etymologica indica. Mas porque não usar antes da palavra:—alloplastia,—neste caso mais exacta, como disemos:—allochézia, allochromasia, allomorphia, etc.? É certo porem que se tracta, no artigo, de operações alloplasticas e autoplasticas. (L. C.)

2 E em toda a China. (Nota do traductor.)

3 Jornal chinez publicado no norte. (Nota do traductor.)

4 Na China é com um pincel que se escreve. (Nota do traductor.)

5 Nas minhas notas encontro um caso interessante de autoplastia teratologica que me foi referido pelo sr. Eduardo Marques, interprete sinologo da repartição do expediente sinico de Macau. Appareceu n'aquella cidade um curandeiro a vender um unguento, cuja qualidade recommendada era sarar com notavel proficuidade qualquer ferimento. Como reclamo ao seu medicamento, cortava as pernas a uma gallinha e a um pato com um rapido golpe de parão (termo de Macau que significa faca de cortar lenha ou carne) e com a mesma rapidez adaptava as de um nas do outro, rodeando a junctura com uma grande cataplasma do seu unguento e com uma boa ligadura. Postos os animaes em capoeira apropriada, onde lhes não era possivel o movimento, ao fim de alguns dias as pernas de um estavam perfeitamente adaptadas ás do outro. Não ha duvida que o principio da autoplastia extensivo ao systema osseo, recommendava o unguento, que naturalmrntc não tinha influencia alguma na operação. (Nota do traductor.)

Nota do transcritor:

Foram corrigidos diversos erros tipográficos. Na lista que segue estão as alterações mais importantes.

OriginalCorrigido
taliacocãotaliacoção
IaliacotiusTaliacotius





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