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వికీపీడియా:అయోమయ నివృత్తి

వికీపీడియా నుండి

ఈ పేజీ వికీపీడియా మార్గదర్శకాలలో ఒకటి. సర్వామోదం పొందిన ప్రమాణాలను వివరించే పేజీ ఇది. చాలామంది వీటిని ప్రామాణికంగా స్వీకరించారు. అయితే ఇవి శిలాక్షరాలేమీ కాదు. ఈ పేజీలో మార్పులు అవసరమని భావిస్తే చొరవగా ముందుకు వచ్చి తగు మార్పులు చెయ్యండి. కాకపోతే, ఆ మార్పులు విస్తృతంగా ఆమోదిస్తారని మీరు భావిస్తేనే చెయ్యండి. సందేహాస్పదంగా ఉంటే, ముందుగా ఆ మార్పులను చర్చా పేజీ లో ప్రస్తావించండి.

అయోమయ నివృత్తి in Wikipedia is the process of resolving conflicts in article titles that occur when a single term can be associated with more than one topic. In many cases, this same word or phrase is the natural title of more than one article. In other words, disambiguations are paths leading to different topic pages that could have essentially the same term as their title.

For example, to create a link to Mercury, just put double square brackets around the word — [[Mercury]] — producing Mercury. Now, Mercury is a disambiguation page, listing the several usages of the word. All Mercury links in an article probably refer to a particular Mercury, such as the element (Mercury (element)), the planet (Mercury (planet)), the automobile brand (Mercury (automobile)), the record label (Mercury Records), the NASA manned-spaceflight project (Project Mercury), the plant (Mercury (plant)), or the Roman god (Mercury (mythology)).

విషయ సూచిక

అయోమయ నివృత్తి కొరకు రెండు వేర్వేరు పద్ధతులను ఇక్కడ చర్చించాం:

  • అయోమయ నివృత్తి లింకులు — ఒక వ్యాసానికి పైన ఆ వ్యాసానికి దగ్గరి పేర్లతో లేదా భావనలతో ఉన్న వ్యాసాలకు లింకును చదువరులను చూపించే ఒక గమనిక.
  • అయోమయ నివృత్తి పేజీలు — ఇతర వికీపీడియా పేజీలకు మాత్రమే దారిచూపే (విషయమేమీ లేని) వ్యాసాలు-కాని పేజీలు.

[మార్చు] అయోమయ నివృత్తిని నిర్ణయించడం

మీరే ప్రశ్నించుకోండి: When a reader enters this term and pushes "వెళ్ళు", what article would they most likely be expecting to view as a result? (For example, when someone looks up Joker, would they find information on a comedian? On a card? On Batman's nemesis? On the hit song or album by The Steve Miller Band?) When there is no risk of confusion, do not disambiguate or add a link to a disambiguation page.

[మార్చు] వేటిని చేర్చకూడదు

[మార్చు] నిఘంటు నిర్వచనాలు

అయోమయ నివృత్తి పేజీ నిఘంటును నిర్వచనాల జాబితా కాదు. A short description of the common general meaning of a word can be appropriate for helping the reader determine context. Otherwise, there are templates for linking the reader to Wiktionary, the wiki dictionary; see వికీపీడియా:Wikimedia sister projects#Wiktionary.

[మార్చు] Duplicate విషయాలు

Disambiguation should not be confused with the merging of duplicate articles (articles with different titles, but regarding the very same topic, for example "gas turbine" and "combustion turbine", or "restroom" and "washroom"). These are handled with వికీపీడియా:Redirects.

[మార్చు] జాబితాలు

Lists of articles of which the disambiguated term forms only a part of the article title don't belong here. Disambiguation pages are not search indices. Do not add links that merely contain part of the page title (where there is no significant risk of confusion).

[మార్చు] Set index వ్యాసాలు

A set index article is a list article about a set of items that share the same (or similar) name. It is different from a disambiguation navigation page, and should not share the same formatting nor be considered a true disambiguation page:

  • A disambiguation page has links to a heterogeneous set of concepts. It is purely for navigation, not information, and should have minimal formatting and follow the strict set of rules at వికీపీడియా:Manual of Style (disambiguation pages).
  • A set index article describe a single set of concepts. For example, Dodge Charger describes a set of cars, List of peaks named Signal Mountain describes a set of mountain peaks, or USS Enterprise describes a set of ships. A set index articles is both for information and for navigation: just like a normal list article, it can have metadata and extra information about each entry. A set index article can be entertaining and informative by itself, can help editors find redlinks to create articles on notable entries, and finally can also help readers navigate between articles that have similar names. A set index article should not be restricted by WP:MOSDAB as it currently stands, but instead should follow the relevant style described in వికీపీడియా:Lists (stand-alone lists).

Sometimes, there will be a disambiguation navigation page and a set index article with a similar name. For example, there is some topic XXXX which consists of concepts of type YYYY plus other meanings. In this case, the disambiguation navigation page should be named XXXX, and the set index article be named List of YYYY named XXXX. Alternatively, if the meaning YYYY is very dominant, then the set index article should be named XXXX, and the disambiguation navigation page be named XXXX (disambiguation). Whether to use this alternative follows the guidelines for naming disambiguation articles.

For more information specifically about set index articles for ships, see వికీపీడియా:WikiProject Ships/Guidelines#Index pages.

[మార్చు] Sister projects

Disambiguation descriptions should not be created for subjects whose only articles are on pages of sister projects, even if the disambiguation page already exists (e.g., the poll on 9/11 victims). Subjects that have articles on both Wikipedia and sister projects are, of course, fine.

[మార్చు] Summary or multi-stub pages

Several small topics of just a paragraph or so each can co-exist on a single page, separated by headings. Although this is similar to a disambiguation page, the disambiguation notice should not be put here, as the page doesn't link to other articles closely associated with a specific term.

As each section grows, there may come a time when a subject should have a page of its own. (See వికీపీడియా:Article size and వికీపీడియా:Summary style.)

Although many pages rely on this principle, it has become more common for each subject to have a separate page for its own stub.

Always use {{split}} or {{splitsection}}, and reach consensus before attempting the split. వికీపీడియా:Be bold in updating pages doesn't apply, as it is very difficult to revert a split, often requiring extensive assistance by administrators.

[మార్చు] అయోమయ నివృత్తి లింకులు

A user searching for a particular term might not expect the article that appears. Therefore, helpful links to any alternative articles with similar names are needed. One of the templates shown below may be used. Their parameters are described in Template talk:Otheruses4 and illustrated at వికీపీడియా:Otheruses templates (example usage).

[మార్చు] పై లింకులు

ప్రధాన వ్యాసం: Wikipedia:Hatnotes

When a user searches for a particular term, he or she may have something else in mind than what actually appears. In this case, a friendly link to the alternative article is placed at the top. While there is no specific prohibition against disambiguation links where the page name is not ambiguous (for example, when it contains a clarificatory suffix in brackets), such links are not encouraged.

For example, the article about Alexander the Great contains a link to the 1956 film Alexander the Great:


Which is generated by entering: {{for|the film of the same name|Alexander the Great (1956 film)}}
Note that double brackets are not required within the template in order to generate the link.

Where there are several articles to be disambiguated from each other, include a link to a separate disambiguation page. In many cases, the template {{Otheruses}} is appropriate to link to that page. However, a variety of special cases are also handled. For example,

  • Lace uses the disambiguation template {{Otheruses2}} {{otheruses2|Lace}}, which generates:


  • Johann Sebastian Bach uses {{redirect|Bach}}, a different template incorporating redirect information:


Above all, do not pipe the link. Show the entire linked article title as is, to avoid confusion, which is the reason for the top link in the first place.

[మార్చు] క్రింది లింకులు

Bottom links are deprecated. Such links are harder to find and easily missed. For alternatives that are related to the article, and not likely to be ambiguous, the "See also" Section is more appropriate.

[మార్చు] మూస ఉదాహరణలు

A number of templates have been created to ensure the uniform appearance of disambiguation links, some of which were previously outlined:

  • {{Otheruses}} This template automatically generates the article title (in this instance, "Disambiguation") so you don't have to retype it, or in case the page is moved to one with a new name.


  • {{Otheruses2}} This template requires a link be entered ("DifferentArticleName")


  • {{Otheruses-number}} for year pages (in this example, the title of this page appears rather than a 4-digit numeral)


  • {{Otherplaces}}, analogous to {{Otheruses}}


  • {{Otherplaces2}}, analogous to {{Otheruses2}}


  • {{Otherpersons}}


  • {{Redirect}} In this example, the term "Lalala" has been entered as the parameter:


A longer, but incomplete list of disambiguation templates is found at వికీపీడియా:Template messages/General#Disambiguation and redirection, with further style information at వికీపీడియా:Hatnotes#Templates. Many more templates are listed in వర్గం:Disambiguation and redirection templates.

Links to disambiguation pages include the text "(disambiguation)" in the title (such as America (disambiguation)).

[మార్చు] అయోమయ నివృత్తి పేజీలు

ప్రధాన వ్యాసం: Wikipedia:Manual of Style (disambiguation pages)

Each of these pages in Wikipedia comprises a list (or multiple lists, for multiple senses of the term in question) of similarly-titled links.

  • Link to the primary topic (if there is one):
A school is an institution for learning.
  • Start each list with a short introductory sentence fragment with the title in bold, and ending with a colon. For example:
Blockbuster may refer to:
  • Try to start each entry in the list with a link to the target page.
  • Each bulleted entry should, in almost every case, have exactly one navigable (blue) link; including more than one link can confuse the reader.
  • Do not pipe the name of the links to the articles being listed.
  • Only include related subject articles as long as the term in question is actually described on the target article. (For example, the Canton disambiguation page legitimately has an entry for Flag terminology.)

Include the template {{disambig}} (or other disambiguation template, such as {{Geodis}} or {{Hndis}}) at the bottom as an indicator of the page's status. Following the template, include any of the standard categories as appropriate.

For a prime example of an actual disambiguation page, see Lift.

[మార్చు] తయారీ ముందు

Before constructing a new disambiguation page, determine a Specific topic name for any and all existing pages, and a generic name for the disambiguation page. Move any page with a conflicting title (i.e. the same exact title) to its more specific name. Use the What links here list for the moved page to update all of the pages that link to that page (more likely than not, a link in Wikipedia will point to your new disambiguation page unnecessarily, and this should be resolved on a case-by-case basis).

[మార్చు] నిర్మాణం

Assuming a Generic topic page, use the What links here list of the moved page to access the redirect page created by the move, and replace that redirect page with the new disambiguation page.

Use the new disambiguation page to find and replace any old disambiguation links in existing pages with a link to the new disambiguation page.

Note that the standard link templates will actually point to a Term XYZ (disambiguation) version of the new name. Use the red-link on an existing page to create a redirect page,

#REDIRECT [[Term XYZ]]{{R to disambiguation page}}

[మార్చు] పేజీ నామకరణ విధానాలు

A disambiguation page is usually named after the generic topic (eg "Term XYZ"). "Term XYZ (disambiguation)" is not the standardized name for a disambiguation page, and is only used when there is a primary topic with an article at "Term XYZ". It is acceptable, on the other hand, to create a page at "Term XYZ (disambiguation)" that redirects to the disambiguation page at "Term XYZ". This type of redirect can be used to indicate deliberate links to the disambiguation page.

Usually, there should be just one disambiguation page for all cases (upper- or lower-case) and variant punctuation.

For example, "Term xyz", "Term Xyz", "Term X-Y-Z", and "Term X.Y.Z." should all redirect to one page.

[మార్చు] సాధారణ విషయం

In most cases, the generic term or phrase should be the title of the actual disambiguation page. This permits an editor to visually determine whether a disambiguating page is generic in వర్గం:Disambiguation.

Links that deliberately point to generic topic disambiguation pages should use an unambiguous "(disambiguation)" link instead, to assist in distinguishing accidental links. In turn, the "(disambiguation)" page will redirect to the generic topic page.

For example, the specific topic Tables (board game) links to Table (disambiguation), a redirect to Table with the template {{R to disambiguation page}}. Table is a generic topic disambiguation page.

[మార్చు] ప్రధాన విషయం

When there is a well known primary meaning for a term or phrase, much more used than any other (this may be indicated by a majority of links in existing articles or by consensus of the editors of those articles that it will be significantly more commonly searched for and read than other meanings), then that topic may be used for the title of the main article, with a disambiguation link at the top. Where there is no such clearly dominant usage there is no primary topic page.

Ensure that the "(disambiguation)" page links back to an unambiguous page name. The unambiguous page name should redirect to the primary topic page. This assists future editors (and automated processes).

For example, the primary topic Rome has a link at the top to Rome (disambiguation), where there is a link back via Rome, Italy (rather than directly to Rome).

If there is extended discussion about which article truly is the primary topic, that may be a sign that there is in fact no primary topic, and that the disambiguation page should be located at the plain title with no "(disambiguation)".

[మార్చు] ప్రత్యేక విషయం

For disambiguating specific topic pages, several options are available:

  1. When there is another word (such as Cheque instead of Check) or more complete name that is equally clear (such as Delta rocket), that should be used.
  2. A disambiguating word or phrase can be added in parentheses. The word or phrase in parentheses should be:
    • the generic class that includes the topic (for example, Mercury (element), Seal (mammal)); or
    • the subject or context to which the topic applies (for example, Union (set theory), Inflation (economics)).
  3. Rarely, an adjective describing the topic can be used, but it's usually better to rephrase the title to avoid parentheses.

If there is a choice between disambiguating with a generic class or with a context, choose whichever is simpler. Use the same disambiguating phrase for other topics within the same context.

For example, "(mythology)" rather than "(mythological figure)".

If there is a choice between using a short phrase and word with context, there is no hard rule about which is preferred. Both may be created, with one redirecting to the other.

For example, Mathematical analysis and Analysis (mathematics).

When the context is a book or other creative work, such as with articles about fictional characters, avoid lots of little stubs about fictional characters: check your fiction.

To conform to the naming conventions, the phrase in parentheses should be treated just as any other word in a title: normally lowercase, unless it is a proper noun that always appears capitalized even in running text (such as a book title).

For more on which word or phrase to insert in the parentheses, see వికీపీడియా:Naming conventions and Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions. For common disambiguation words, see User:Kevinkor2/Research into names of Wikipedia articles.

[మార్చు] లింకులు

[మార్చు] ద్వంద అయోమయ నివృత్తి

A double disambiguation is a link to a disambiguation page from another disambiguation page. This kind of disambiguation is typically more specific than one with a simplified name. These kind of disambiguations are relatively rare on Wikipedia.

For example, Montgomery is a disambiguation page that leads to Montgomery County, a secondary disambiguation page.

[మార్చు] అంతర్భాషా లింకులు

Pure disambiguation pages should contain interlanguage links only where a similar problem of disambiguation exists in the target language; that is, they should not point to a single meaning from the list of meanings, but to another disambiguation page.

[మార్చు] Links to disambiguated topics

A code of honor for creating disambiguation pages is to fix all resulting mis-directed links.

Before creating a disambiguation page, click on What links here to find all of the pages that link to the page that is about to change. Make sure that those pages are fixed and that they won't be adversely affected when performing the {{split}} or {{splitsection}}.

When repairing a link, use pipe syntax so that the link does not contain the new qualifier.

For example, when renaming Topic Name to Topic Name (qualifier), [[Topic Name (qualifier)|Topic Name]] will render as Topic Name just like the original.

A shorter alternative is to use empty pipe syntax, also known as the pipe trick. This allows editors to leave out the piped alternative when editing.

For example, typing "[[Topic Name (qualifier)|]]" will automatically produce "[[Topic Name (qualifier)|Topic Name]]". Read సహాయము:Pipe trick for more information.

Of course, the whole point of making a disambiguation page is that accidental links made to it will make sense. These వికీపీడియా:Disambiguation pages with links are periodically checked and repaired.

There is a tool to facilitate this in the Python Wikipedia Robot. The bot offers to update links to choices listed on the disambiguation page. Don't forget to post a notice on the Wikipedia talk:Bots page.

[మార్చు] అయోమయ నివృత్తి పేజీలకు లింకులు

There is rarely a need for links directly to disambiguation pages—except from any primary topic. In most cases, links should point to the article that deals with the specific meaning intended.

To link to a disambiguation page (instead of a specific meaning), link to the redirect to the disambiguation page that includes the text "(disambiguation)" in the title (such as, America (disambiguation) rather than America). This helps distinguish accidental links to the disambiguation page from intentional ones. See వర్గం:Redirects to disambiguation pages.

The Wikipedia software has a feature that lists "orphan" pages; that is, no other page links to them. But for disambiguating pages, that's perfectly correct: we usually want pages to link to the more specific pages.

In order to make the orphans list more useful by not cluttering it with intentional orphans, disambiguation pages are linked from:

  • వికీపీడియా:Links to disambiguating pages,
  • వికీపీడియా:Links to (disambiguation) pages,
  • వికీపీడియా:Multiple-place names, and
  • వికీపీడియా:Non-unique personal name.

When you create a disambiguation page, add a link to it in one of those pages as appropriate.

వర్గం:అయోమయ నివృత్తి provides a complete list of disambiguation pages.

[మార్చు] ఇవి కూడా చూడండి

[మార్చు] System pages

  • వికీపీడియా:Disambiguation pages with links, an active Wiki fixup project