The empirical characteristics of human pattern vision defy theoretically-driven expectations

by Peter Neri

Contrast is the most fundamental property of images. Consequently, any comprehensive model of biological vision must incorporate this attribute and provide a veritable description of its impact on visual perception. Current theoretical and computational models predict that vision should modify its characteristics at low contrast: for example, it should become broader (more lowpass) to protect from noise, as often demonstrated by individual neurons. We find that the opposite is true for human discrimination of elementary image elements: vision becomes sharper, not broader, as contrast approaches threshold levels. Furthermore, it suffers from increased internal variability at low contrast and it transitions from a surprisingly linear regime at high contrast to a markedly nonlinear processing mode in the low-contrast range. These characteristics are hard-wired in that they happen on a single trial without memory or expectation. Overall, the empirical results urge caution when attempting to interpret human vision from the standpoint of optimality and related theoretical constructs. Direct measurements of this phenomenon indicate that the actual constraints derive from intrinsic architectural features, such as the co-existence of complex-cell-like and simple-cell-like components. Small circuits built around these elements can indeed account for the empirical results, but do not appear to operate in a manner that conforms to optimality even approximately. More generally, our results provide a compelling demonstration of how far we still are from securing an adequate computational account of the most basic operations carried out by human vision.

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