Risk factors for childhood enteric infection in urban Maputo, Mozambique: A cross-sectional study

by Jackie Knee, Trent Sumner, Zaida Adriano, David Berendes, Ellen de Bruijn, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Rassul Nalá, Oliver Cumming, Joe Brown

Background

Enteric infections are common where public health infrastructure is lacking. This study assesses risk factors for a range of enteric infections among children living in low-income, unplanned communities of urban Maputo, Mozambique.

Methods & findings

We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 17 neighborhoods of Maputo to assess the prevalence of reported (altro…)

The public health benefit and burden of mass drug administration programs in Vietnamese schoolchildren: Impact of mebendazole

by Sam Debaveye, Claudia Virginia Gonzalez Torres, Delphine De Smedt, Bert Heirman, Shane Kavanagh, Jo Dewulf

Background

Mass anthelmintic drug administration is recommended in developing countries to address infection by soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). We quantified the public health benefit of treatment with mebendazole in eight million Vietnamese children aged 5–14 years from 2006 to 2011. This was compared to the environmental impact of the pharmaceutical supply chain of mebendazole, as the resource (altro…)

Safety of azithromycin in infants under six months of age in Niger: A community randomized trial

by Catherine E. Oldenburg, Ahmed M. Arzika, Ramatou Maliki, Mohamed Salissou Kane, Elodie Lebas, Kathryn J. Ray, Catherine Cook, Sun Y. Cotter, Zhaoxia Zhou, Sheila K. West, Robin Bailey, Travis C. Porco, Jeremy D. Keenan, Thomas M. Lietman

Background

Mass azithromycin distribution reduces under-5 child mortality. Trachoma control programs currently treat infants aged 6 months and older. Here, we report findings from an infant adverse event survey in 1–5 month olds who (altro…)

The prevalence of lymphatic filariasis infection and disease following six rounds of mass drug administration in Mandalay Region, Myanmar

by Benjamin F. R. Dickson, Patricia M. Graves, Ni Ni Aye, Thet Wai Nwe, Tint Wai, San San Win, Myint Shwe, Janet Douglass, Richard S. Bradbury, William J. McBride

Lymphatic filariasis is widely endemic in Myanmar. Despite the establishment of an elimination program in 2000, knowledge of the remaining burden of disease relies predominantly on programmatic information. To assist the program, we conducted an independent cross-sectional household cluster survey to determine the (altro…)

Exploring the parasite load and molecular diversity of <i>Trypanosoma cruzi</i> in patients with chronic Chagas disease from different regions of Brazil

by Ícaro Rodrigues-dos-Santos, Myllena F. Melo, Liane de Castro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel A. A. do Brasil, Andréa Silvestre de Sousa, Constança Britto, Otacilio C. Moreira

Chagas disease is still a major public health issue in many Latin American countries. One of the current major challenges is to find an association between Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) and clinical manifestations of the disease. In this study, we used a multilocus (altro…)

Serological evidence of inter-epizootic/inter-epidemic circulation of Rift Valley fever virus in domestic cattle in Kyela and Morogoro, Tanzania

by Mirende Kichuki Matiko, Linda Peniel Salekwa, Christopher Jacob Kasanga, Sharadhuli Idd Kimera, Magnus Evander, Wambura Philemon Nyangi

Background

Tanzania is among the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootic/endemic countries in sub Saharan Africa, where RVF disease outbreaks occur within a range of 3 to 17-year intervals. Detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antibodies in animals in regions with no previous history of outbreaks raises the question of whether the disease is (altro…)

Human-pathogenic <i>Anaplasma</i> spp., and <i>Rickettsia</i> spp. in animals in Xi’an, China

by Wen-Ping Guo, Baicheng Huang, Qin Zhao, Gang Xu, Baoyuan Liu, Yi-Han Wang, En-Min Zhou

In China, thirteen species of tick-borne rickettsiales bacteria pathogenic to human have been reported in ticks and host animals, and human patients caused by them also has been identified. However, investigation for rickettsiales bacteria circulating in Xi’an wasn’t performed although diseases resembling human diseases caused by these organisms have been found. In this study, domestic animals and (altro…)

Molecular analysis of clinical <i>Burkholderia pseudomallei</i> isolates from southwestern coastal region of India, using multi-locus sequence typing

by Aayushi Kamthan, Tushar Shaw, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, Subodh Kumar

Background

The Gram-negative soil dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis. The disease is endemic in most parts of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Over last few years, there has been an increase in number of melioidosis cases from India; however the disease epidemiology is less clearly understood. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a powerful genotypic method used to characterize (altro…)

Estimation of HTLV-1 vertical transmission cases in Brazil per annum

by Carolina Rosadas, Bassit Malik, Graham P. Taylor, Marzia Puccioni-Sohler

Background

Brazil has at least 800,000 HTLV-1 infected individuals. HTLV-1 can be transmitted via sexual intercourse, contact with blood and from mother to child, mainly by breastfeeding. Treatments for the high morbidity/mortality associated diseases (ATL and HAM/TSP) are limited, therefore, infection prevention is of utmost importance. However, antenatal screening is not routinely performed in Brazil. A lack of data regarding the number (altro…)

Use of anthropophilic culicid-based xenosurveillance as a proxy for <i>Plasmodium vivax</i> malaria burden and transmission hotspots identification

by Joabi Nascimento, Vanderson S. Sampaio, Stephan Karl, Andrea Kuehn, Anne Almeida, Sheila Vitor-Silva, Gisely Cardoso de Melo, Djane C. Baia da Silva, Stefanie C. P. Lopes, Nelson F. Fé, José B. Pereira Lima, Maria G. Barbosa Guerra, Paulo F. P. Pimenta, Quique Bassat, Ivo Mueller, Marcus V. G. Lacerda, Wuelton M. Monteiro

Vector-borne diseases account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases, causing more than one million deaths annually. Malaria (altro…)

Lassa virus activates myeloid dendritic cells but suppresses their ability to stimulate T cells

by Justine Schaeffer, Xavier Carnec, Stéphanie Reynard, Mathieu Mateo, Caroline Picard, Natalia Pietrosemoli, Marie-Agnès Dilliès, Sylvain Baize

Lassa virus (LASV) is responsible for a viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and the death of 3,000 to 5,000 people every year. The immune response to LASV is poorly understood, but type I interferon (IFN-I) and T-cell responses appear to be critical for the host. We studied the response of myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) to (altro…)

Highly competent, non-exhausted CD8+ T cells continue to tightly control pathogen load throughout chronic <i>Trypanosoma cruzi</i> infection

by Angela D. Pack, Matthew H. Collins, Charles S. Rosenberg, Rick L. Tarleton

Trypanosoma cruzi infection is characterized by chronic parasitism of non-lymphoid tissues and is rarely eliminated despite potent adaptive immune responses. This failure to cure has frequently been attributed to a loss or impairment of anti-T. cruzi T cell responses over time, analogous to the T cell dysfunction described for other persistent infections. In this study, we have evaluated the (altro…)

HIV-1 capsids from B27/B57<sup>+</sup> elite controllers escape Mx2 but are targeted by TRIM5α, leading to the induction of an antiviral state

by Natacha Merindol, Mohamed El-Far, Mohamed Sylla, Nasser Masroori, Caroline Dufour, Jia-xin Li, Pearl Cherry, Mélodie B. Plourde, Cécile Tremblay, Lionel Berthoux

Elite controllers (ECs) are a rare subset of HIV-1 slow progressors characterized by prolonged viremia suppression. HLA alleles B27 and B57 promote the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated depletion of infected cells in ECs, leading to the emergence of escape mutations in the viral capsid (CA). Whether those mutations modulate CA (altro…)

REM1.3’s phospho-status defines its plasma membrane nanodomain organization and activity in restricting PVX cell-to-cell movement

by Artemis Perraki, Julien Gronnier, Paul Gouguet, Marie Boudsocq, Anne-Flore Deroubaix, Vincent Simon, Sylvie German-Retana, Cyril Zipfel, Emmanuelle Bayer, Sébastien Mongrand, Véronique Germain, Anthony Legrand, Birgit Habenstein

Plants respond to pathogens through dynamic regulation of plasma membrane-bound signaling pathways. To date, how the plant plasma membrane is involved in responses to viruses is mostly unknown. Here, we show that plant cells sense the Potato virus X (PVX) COAT PROTEIN and TRIPLE GENE (altro…)

<i>Arabidopsis</i> class I formins control membrane-originated actin polymerization at pollen tube tips

by Yaxian Lan, Xiaonan Liu, Ying Fu, Shanjin Huang

A population of dynamic apical actin filaments is required for rapid polarized pollen tube growth. However, the cellular mechanisms driving their assembly remain incompletely understood. It was postulated that formin is a major player in nucleating apical actin assembly, but direct genetic and cytological evidence remains to be firmly established. Here we found that both Arabidopsis formin 3 (AtFH3) and formin 5 (AtFH5) (altro…)

Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals transcriptional dynamics of estrogen-induced dysplasia in the ovarian surface epithelium

by Nhung H. Vuong, David P. Cook, Laura A. Forrest, Lauren E. Carter, Pascale Robineau-Charette, Joshua M. Kofsky, Kendra M. Hodgkinson, Barbara C. Vanderhyden

Estrogen therapy increases the risk of ovarian cancer and exogenous estradiol accelerates the onset of ovarian cancer in mouse models. Both in vivo and in vitro, ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells exposed to estradiol develop a subpopulation that loses cell polarity, contact inhibition, and forms multi-layered foci of (altro…)

Identification of Elg1 interaction partners and effects on post-replication chromatin re-formation

by Vamsi K. Gali, David Dickerson, Yuki Katou, Katsunori Fujiki, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Tom Owen-Hughes, Takashi Kubota, Anne D. Donaldson

Elg1, the major subunit of a Replication Factor C-like complex, is critical to ensure genomic stability during DNA replication, and is implicated in controlling chromatin structure. We investigated the consequences of Elg1 loss for the dynamics of chromatin re-formation following DNA replication. Measurement of Okazaki fragment length and the micrococcal nuclease sensitivity of (altro…)

Replicative and non-replicative mechanisms in the formation of clustered CNVs are indicated by whole genome characterization

by Lusine Nazaryan-Petersen, Jesper Eisfeldt, Maria Pettersson, Johanna Lundin, Daniel Nilsson, Josephine Wincent, Agne Lieden, Lovisa Lovmar, Jesper Ottosson, Jelena Gacic, Outi Mäkitie, Ann Nordgren, Francesco Vezzi, Valtteri Wirta, Max Käller, Tina Duelund Hjortshøj, Cathrine Jespersgaard, Rayan Houssari, Laura Pignata, Mads Bak, Niels Tommerup, Elisabeth Syk Lundberg, Zeynep Tümer, Anna Lindstrand

Clustered copy number variants (CNVs) as detected by chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) are often reported as germline chromothripsis. However, such cases (altro…)

Function and regulation of the <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> Rab32 family member GLO-1 in lysosome-related organelle biogenesis

by Caitlin Morris, Olivia K. Foster, Simran Handa, Kimberly Peloza, Laura Voss, Hannah Somhegyi, Youli Jian, My Van Vo, Marie Harp, Fiona M. Rambo, Chonglin Yang, Greg J. Hermann

Cell type-specific modifications of conventional endosomal trafficking pathways lead to the formation of lysosome-related organelles (LROs). C. elegans gut granules are intestinally restricted LROs that coexist with conventional degradative lysosomes. The formation of gut granules requires the Rab32 family member GLO-1. We show (altro…)

The zinc finger protein DCM1 is required for male meiotic cytokinesis by preserving callose in rice

by Chao Zhang, Yi Shen, Ding Tang, Wenqing Shi, Dongmei Zhang, Guijie Du, Yihua Zhou, Guohua Liang, Yafei Li, Zhukuan Cheng

Meiotic cytokinesis influences the fertility and ploidy of gametes. However, limited information is available on the genetic control of meiotic cytokinesis in plants. Here, we identified a rice mutant with low male fertility, defective callose in meiosis 1 (dcm1). The pollen grains of dcm1 are proved to be defective in exine (altro…)

A fast and agnostic method for bacterial genome-wide association studies: Bridging the gap between k-mers and genetic events

by Magali Jaillard, Leandro Lima, Maud Tournoud, Pierre Mahé, Alex van Belkum, Vincent Lacroix, Laurent Jacob

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) methods applied to bacterial genomes have shown promising results for genetic marker discovery or detailed assessment of marker effect. Recently, alignment-free methods based on k-mer composition have proven their ability to explore the accessory genome. However, they lead to redundant descriptions and results which are sometimes hard to interpret. Here we introduce (altro…)

Population genomics of grey wolves and wolf-like canids in North America

by Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding, Shyam Gopalakrishan, Filipe G. Vieira, Jose A. Samaniego Castruita, Katrine Raundrup, Mads Peter Heide Jørgensen, Morten Meldgaard, Bent Petersen, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Johan Brus Mikkelsen, Ulf Marquard-Petersen, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne, Love Dalén, Lutz Bachmann, Øystein Wiig, Anders J. Hansen, M. Thomas P. Gilbert

North America is currently home to a number of grey wolf (Canis lupus) and wolf-like canid populations, including the coyote (Canis latrans) and the taxonomically (altro…)

A regularity index for dendrites – local statistics of a neuron’s input space

by Laura Anton-Sanchez, Felix Effenberger, Concha Bielza, Pedro Larrañaga, Hermann Cuntz

Neurons collect their inputs from other neurons by sending out arborized dendritic structures. However, the relationship between the shape of dendrites and the precise organization of synaptic inputs in the neural tissue remains unclear. Inputs could be distributed in tight clusters, entirely randomly or else in a regular grid-like manner. Here, we analyze dendritic branching structures using a regularity index R, (altro…)

Functional mechanisms underlie the emergence of a diverse range of plasticity phenomena

by James A. Henderson, Pulin Gong

Diverse plasticity mechanisms are orchestrated to shape the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying brain functions. However, why these plasticity rules emerge and how their dynamics interact with neural activity to give rise to complex neural circuit dynamics remains largely unknown. Here we show that both Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity rules emerge from a functional perspective of neuronal dynamics whereby each neuron learns to encode its own activity in (altro…)

Invasion and effective size of graph-structured populations

by Stefano Giaimo, Jordi Arranz, Arne Traulsen

Population structure can strongly affect evolutionary dynamics. The most general way to describe population structures are graphs. An important observable on evolutionary graphs is the probability that a novel mutation spreads through the entire population. But what drives this spread of a mutation towards fixation? Here, we propose a novel way to understand the forces driving fixation by borrowing techniques from evolutionary demography to quantify (altro…)

Visual physiology of the layer 4 cortical circuit <i>in silico</i>

by Anton Arkhipov, Nathan W. Gouwens, Yazan N. Billeh, Sergey Gratiy, Ramakrishnan Iyer, Ziqiang Wei, Zihao Xu, Reza Abbasi-Asl, Jim Berg, Michael Buice, Nicholas Cain, Nuno da Costa, Saskia de Vries, Daniel Denman, Severine Durand, David Feng, Tim Jarsky, Jerome Lecoq, Brian Lee, Lu Li, Stefan Mihalas, Gabriel K. Ocker, Shawn R. Olsen, R. Clay Reid, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Staci A. Sorensen, Quanxin Wang, Jack Waters, Massimo Scanziani, Christof Koch

Despite advances in (altro…)

Oscillations in working memory and neural binding: A mechanism for multiple memories and their interactions

by Jason E. Pina, Mark Bodner, Bard Ermentrout

Neural oscillations have been recorded and implicated in many different basic brain and cognitive processes. For example, oscillatory neural activity has been suggested to play a role in binding and in the maintenance of information in working memory. With respect to the latter, the majority of work has focused primarily on oscillations in terms of providing a “code” in working memory. However, oscillations may (altro…)

Spore-autonomous fluorescent protein expression identifies meiotic chromosome mis-segregation as the principal cause of hybrid sterility in yeast

by David W. Rogers, Ellen McConnell, Jasmine Ono, Duncan Greig

Genome-wide sequence divergence between populations can cause hybrid sterility through the action of the anti-recombination system, which rejects crossover repair of double strand breaks between nonidentical sequences. Because crossovers are necessary to ensure proper segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, the reduced recombination rate in hybrids can result in high levels of nondisjunction and therefore low gamete viability. Hybrid sterility in interspecific (altro…)

Legge di bilancio, audizione del presidente dell’Ufficio parlamentare di bilancio, Giuseppe Pisauro

Le Commissioni Bilancio di Camera e Senato svolgono le audizioni di rappresentanti dell’ISTAT e della Corte dei conti, del presidente dell’Ufficio parlamentare di bilancio, Giuseppe Pisauro, di rappresentanti dell’ANCI, dell’UPI e della Conferenza delle regioni e delle province autonome, di Confindustria, di R.ETE. Imprese Italia, dell’ABI, dell’ANCE e di Confedilizia, di Confapi, Confimi e Confprofessioni e dell’Alleanza delle cooperative, nell’ambito dell’attività conoscitiva preliminare all’esame del disegno di legge recante Bilancio di (altro…)

Contrasto dei reati contro la pubblica amministrazione, audizioni

Le Commissioni riunite I Affari costituzionali e II Giustizia nell’ambito dell’esame in sede referente del disegno di legge recante Misure per il contrasto dei reati contro la pubblica amministrazione e in materia di trasparenza dei partiti e movimenti politici (C. 1189 Governo e abb. – Rel. per la I Commissione: Forciniti, M5S; Rel. per la II Commissione: Businarolo, M5S), hann proceduto ad un ciclo di audizioni informali ascoltando: rappresentanti dell’Associazione nazionale (altro…)

Fico domani partecipa a proiezione film "Sulla mia pelle"

Domani, martedì 13 novembre, alle ore 18, nella Nuova Aula del Palazzo dei Gruppi parlamentari (via di Campo Marzio 78) viene proiettato il film “Sulla mia pelle”, di Alessio Cremonini. Oltre al regista, intervengono il Presidente della Camera, Roberto Fico, e Ilaria Cucchi. La presentazione del film viene trasmessa in diretta webtv. Per chi volesse partecipare alla proiezione sono disponibili cento posti. Per prenotarsi è necessario accreditarsi preventivamente scrivendo all’indirizzo eventi@camera.it.

Tratto (altro…)

Decreto sicurezza, inizia l’esame

La I Commissione Affari costituzionali ha iniziato l’esame, in sede referente, del disegno di legge C. 1346, approvato dal Senato, di conversione del decreto-legge n.113 del 2018: Disposizioni urgenti in materia di protezione internazionale e immigrazione, sicurezza pubblica, nonché misure per la funzionalità del Ministero dell’interno e l’organizzazione e il funzionamento dell’Agenzia nazionale per l’amministrazione e la destinazione dei beni sequestrati e confiscati alla criminalità organizzata. Delega al Governo in materia (altro…)

Anniversario attentato Nassirya: messaggio del Presidente Alberti Casellati

Lunedì 12 11 2018

“Ricordare Nassirya e le 19 vittime dell’efferato attentato terroristico di cui oggi ricorre il quindicesimo anniversario, significa non soltanto onorare il sacrificio di coloro che sono caduti, rappresentando la Patria, in nome di ideali di pace e di giustizia, ma anche rendere un omaggio doveroso e mai retorico, a tutte le Forze Armate del nostro Paese”.
Lo ha detto il Presidente del Senato, Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, aggiungendo: (altro…)

Diffusione della Xylella fastidiosa, audizione di Emiliano – Mercoledì alle 14,30 diretta webtv

Mercoledì 14 novembre, alle ore 14.30, la Commissione Agricoltura, nell’ambito dell’indagine conoscitiva sull’emergenza legata alla diffusione della Xylella fastidiosa nella regione Puglia, svolge l’audizione del Presidente della Regione Puglia, Michele Emiliano e dell’Assessore all’agricoltura della medesima regione, Leonardo Di Gioia. L’appuntamento sarà trasmesso in diretta webtv.

Tratto da: www.camera.it
Nota sul Copyright: L’utilizzo, la riproduzione, l’estrazione di copia, ovvero la distribuzione delle informazioni testuali e degli elementi multimediali disponibili sul sito della Camera (altro…)

Nassiriya, Fico: "Riconoscenza e vicinanza da parte delle istituzioni"

Dichiarazione del Presidente della Camera dei deputati, Roberto Fico: “Ricordiamo tutti lo sgomento e la commozione che si diffuse in tutto il Paese alla notizia della strage di Nassiriya, in cui persero la vita diciannove concittadini impegnati in missione in Iraq. A quindici anni da quell’attentato, nella Giornata del ricordo dei caduti militari e civili nelle missioni internazionali per la pace, la memoria di Nassiriya deve aiutarci a ritrovare le motivazioni (altro…)

La stampa parlamentare e la rivoluzione digitale

Lunedì 12 11 2018

Di seguito, il testo del messaggio che il Presidente del Senato, Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati, ha inviato al Presidente dell’Associazione Stampa Parlamentare, Marco Di Fonzo, in occasione del seminario “Stampa, comunicazione politica, social media, deontologia. La sfida al lavoro dei giornalisti e alle regole professionali nel nuovo contesto digitale”, che si è svolto lunedì 12 novembre nella Sala Koch di Palazzo Madama.

Caro Presidente
rivolgo a Lei e, attraverso (altro…)

Interventi per i professori e i ricercatori universitari

Negli ultimi anni, l’azione legislativa è stata indirizzata ad elevare sempre più le facoltà assunzionali delle università e ad agevolare il ricambio generazionale. Ulteriori novità hanno riguardato la disciplina per la chiamata diretta, le modalità per il conseguimento dell’abilitazione scientifica nazionale – presupposto per le assunzioni dei professori – nonché il trattamento stipendiale di professori e ricercatori.
 

Tratto da: www.camera.it
Nota sul Copyright: L’utilizzo, la riproduzione, l’estrazione di copia, ovvero la distribuzione (altro…)

Interventi per i professori e i ricercatori universitari

Negli ultimi anni, l’azione legislativa è stata indirizzata ad elevare sempre più le facoltà assunzionali delle università e ad agevolare il ricambio generazionale. Ulteriori novità hanno riguardato la disciplina per la chiamata diretta, le modalità per il conseguimento dell’abilitazione scientifica nazionale – presupposto per le assunzioni dei professori – nonché il trattamento stipendiale di professori e ricercatori.
 

Tratto da: www.camera.it
Nota sul Copyright: L’utilizzo, la riproduzione, l’estrazione di copia, ovvero la distribuzione (altro…)

Interventi per il personale della scuola

I primi interventi legislativi della XVIII legislatura hanno riguardato la questione dei diplomati magistrali che, a seguito di una sentenza del Consiglio di Stato, non hanno titolo all’inserimento nelle graduatorie ad esaurimento e l’eliminazione del termine massimo complessivo di durata previsto per i contratti a tempo determinato del personale della scuola, per la copertura di posti vacanti e disponibili.
Precedentemente, le principali novità per i docenti hanno riguardato – oltre a nuove (altro…)

O.D.G. Giunte e Commissioni: 10ª Industria, commercio, turismo – 15/11/2018

O.D.G. Giunte e Commissioni

10ª Industria, commercio, turismo

Seduta/e: 23 del 15/11/2018

odg-10-commissione-seduta-23.pdf


Tratto da www.senato.it

Nota sul Copyright: L’utilizzo, la riproduzione, l’estrazione di copia, ovvero la distribuzione delle informazioni testuali e degli elementi multimediali disponibili sul sito del Senato della Repubblica è autorizzata (altro…)

We are not Charlie and we will never be.