Dalla prima Commissione antimafia all’indagine sulla Loggia P2: la storia d’Italia nei documenti delle Commissioni parlamentari d’inchiesta. Resoconti e relazioni ora disponibili in Rete

Martedì 7 7 2015

La prima Commissione d’inchiesta bicamerale risale al 1955 e doveva occuparsi delle condizioni dei lavoratori. In particolare, aveva il compito di condurre “un’approfondita ed esauriente indagine” sull’applicazione delle “norme igieniche e delle leggi sociali, contro gli infortuni e le malattie professionali, per la difesa della maternità e dell’infanzia, per l’assicurazione vecchiaia, tubercolosi, malattie comuni”.

Per l’istituzione della prima Commissione antimafia occorre attendere il 1962, terza Legislatura Repubblicana; presieduta dal deputato Paolo Rossi (Psi-Psdi unificati), secondo la legge istitutiva doveva “esaminare la genesi e le caratteristiche del fenomeno della mafia” e proporre “le misure necessarie per reprimerne le manifestazioni ed eliminarne le cause”. Ma, a causa dello scioglimento anticipato delle Camere (febbraio 1963), la Commissione non tenne alcuna seduta. Si formerà di nuovo nella quarta Legislatura, presieduta dal senatore della Dc Donato Pafundi, tenendo ben 118 sedute.
Nella V Legislatura vedono la luce anche le Commissioni d’inchiesta “sui fenomeni di criminalità in Sardegna” e “sugli eventi del giugno-luglio 1964 (SIFAR)”.

E’ una parte importante della storia dell’Italia repubblicana quella che scorre nei documenti delle Commissioni parlamentari d’inchiesta, con capitoli dedicati al commercio di armi, al terremoto nel Belice, alla “fuga di sostanze tossiche avvenuta il 10 luglio 1976 nello stabilimento ICMESA”, all’omicidio di Aldo Moro, alla loggia massonica P2, al caso Sindona.
I documenti sono ora a disposizione di tutti, grazie al progetto di recupero in formato digitale e di pubblicazione in Rete degli atti parlamentari delle Legislature repubblicane.

Leggi istitutive, composizione, resoconti e relazioni delle Commissioni di inchiesta sono consultabili nel “Sito storico” del Senato, all’indirizzo www.senato.it/sitostorico. E’ sufficiente selezionare la Legislatura di proprio interesse, quindi seguire il percorso “Lavori del Senato – Commissioni e giunte” e selezionare la singola Commissione di inchiesta.
Dopo la pubblicazione di tutti i resoconti del periodo repubblicano e dei lavori delle Commissioni di inchiesta, il progetto, curato dal Servizio Informatica e dal Servizio dei Resoconti e della Comunicazione Istituzionale del Senato, prosegue con la progressiva pubblicazione dei disegni di legge (già online dalla VI Legislatura) e degli atti parlamentari del Regno.

Tratto da www.senato.it.
L’utilizzo, la riproduzione, l’estrazione di copia, ovvero la distribuzione delle informazioni testuali e degli elementi multimediali disponibili sul sito del Senato è autorizzata esclusivamente nei limiti in cui la stessa avvenga nel rispetto dell’interesse pubblico all’informazione, per finalità non commerciali, garantendo l’integrità degli elementi riprodotti e mediante indicazione della fonte.

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Ven a trabajar con nosotros, postula al Google Fellowship 2015

google-fellowship

¿Eres estudiante de pregrado, posgrado o de leyes? ¿Te gustaría trabajar una temporada con el equipo de Derechos Digitales?

Si contestaste “sí”, esta es tu oportunidad: Google ha abierto las postulaciones al programa “Google Policy Fellowship 2015”, dirigido a estudiantes con interés en la discusión sobre la regulación de internet y la tecnología, y que te permitirá venir a nuestras oficinas en Santiago de Chile y formar parte de nuestro equipo.

Los becarios deberán pasar entre 10 y 12 semanas en Santiago, por lo que recibirán un estipendio de US $ 7.500 de Google.

Durante su estadía, el o la pasante trabajará en los siguientes tópicos:

  • Derechos en internet y acuerdos internacionales.
  • Anonimato en la era de la vigilancia.
  • Derechos humanos y la agenda regional de ciberseguridad
  • Responsabilidad de intermediarios y acoso en línea en América Latina.
  • Principios y estándares de privacidad.

Para más información respecto a las temáticas de trabajo, haz clic aquí.

Para más información respecto a la postulación, haz clic aquí.

¡Te esperamos!

Tratto da derechosdigitales.org

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Differential Activation of Human Monocytes and Lymphocytes by Distinct Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

by Luísa M. D. Magalhães, Agostinho Viana, Egler Chiari, Lúcia M. C. Galvão, Kenneth J. Gollob, Walderez O. Dutra

Background

Trypanosoma cruzi strains are currently classified into six discrete typing units (DTUs) named TcI to VI. It is known that these DTUs have different geographical distribution, as well as biological features. TcI and TcII are major DTUs found in patients from northern and southern Latin America, respectively. Our hypothesis is that upon infection of human peripheral blood cells, Y strain (Tc II) and Col cl1.7 (Tc I), cause distinct immunological changes, which might influence the clinical course of Chagas disease.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We evaluated the infectivity of CFSE-stained trypomastigotes of Col cl1.7 and Y strain in human monocytes for 15 and 72 hours, and determined the immunological profile of lymphocytes and monocytes exposed to the different isolates using multiparameter flow cytometry. Our results showed a similar percentage and intensity of monocyte infection by Y and Col cl1.7. We also observed an increased expression of CD80 and CD86 by monocytes infected with Col cl1.7, but not Y strain. IL-10 was significantly higher in monocytes infected with Col cl1.7, as compared to Y strain. Moreover, infection with Col cl1.7, but not Y strain, led to an increased expression of IL-17 by CD8+ T cells. On the other hand, we observed a positive correlation between the expression of TNF-alpha and granzyme A only after infection with Y strain.

Conclusion/Significance

Our study shows that while Col cl1.7 induces higher monocyte activation and, at the same time, production of IL-10, infection with Y strain leads to a lower monocyte activation but higher inflammatory profile. These results show that TcI and TcII have a distinct immunological impact on human cells during early infection, which might influence disease progression.


Tratto da: www.plos.org.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Taenia solium Human Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Sero-epidemiological Data from Endemic Zones around the World

by Marco Coral-Almeida, Sarah Gabriël, Emmanuel Nji Abatih, Nicolas Praet, Washington Benitez, Pierre Dorny

Background

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a zoonotic neglected disease responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death. Understanding the epidemiology of human cysticercosis (HCC) in endemic regions will help to expose critical information about the transmission of the disease, which could be used to design efficient control programs. This review gathered serological data on apparent prevalence of T. solium circulating antigens and/or seroprevalence of T. solium antibodies, apparent prevalence of human taeniasis and risk factors for HCC from endemic communities in order to understand the differences in exposure to the parasite and active infections with T. solium metacestodes in endemic areas around the world.

Methods

Three databases were used to search sero-epidemiological data from community-based studies conducted between 1989 and 2014 in cysticercosis endemic communities worldwide. The search focused on data obtained from T. solium circulating antigen detection by monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA and/or T. solium antibody seroprevalence determined by Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot (EITB). A meta-analysis was performed per continent.

Principal Findings

A total of 39,271 participants from 19 countries, described in 37 articles were studied. The estimates for the prevalence of circulating T. solium antigens for Africa, Latin America and Asia were: 7.30% (95% CI [4.23–12.31]), 4.08% (95% CI [2.77–5.95]) and 3.98% (95% CI [2.81–5.61]), respectively. Seroprevalence estimates of T. solium antibodies were 17.37% (95% CI [3.33–56.20]), 13.03% (95% CI [9.95–16.88]) and 15.68% (95% CI [10.25–23.24]) respectively. Taeniasis reported prevalences ranged from 0 (95% CI [0.00–1.62]) to 17.25% (95% CI [14.55–20.23]).

Significance

A significant variation in the sero-epidemiological data was observed within each continent, with African countries reporting the highest apparent prevalences of active infections. Intrinsic factors in the human host such as age and immunity were main determinants for the occurrence of infections, while exposure was mostly related to environmental factors which varied from community to community.


Tratto da: www.plos.org.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment

by Iain W. Chalmers, Colin M. Fitzsimmons, Martha Brown, Christine Pierrot, Frances M. Jones, Jakub M. Wawrzyniak, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Edridah M. Tukahebwa, David W. Dunne, Jamal Khalife, Karl F. Hoffmann

Background

The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29) containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study). While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a) and SmLy6D (Sm29) induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K). Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins) and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D) is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE) responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B) within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively), these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7%) for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively) when compared to rising IgG1 levels against sub-surface SmTAL1.

Conclusions/Significance

Collectively, these results expand the number of SmLy6 proteins found within S. mansoni and specifically demonstrate that surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B elicit immunological responses during infection in endemic communities.


Tratto da: www.plos.org.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Correction: Prevalence and Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in People of Rural Communities of the High Jungle of Northern Peru

by Karen A. Alroy, Christine Huang, Robert H. Gilman, Victor R. Quispe-Machaca, Morgan A. Marks, Jenny Ancca-Juarez, Miranda Hillyard, Manuela Verastegui, Gerardo Sanchez, Lilia Cabrera, Elisa Vidal, Erica M. W. Billig, Vitaliano A. Cama, César Náquira, Caryn Bern, Michael Z. Levy, Working Group on Chagas Disease in Peru


Tratto da: www.plos.org.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains

by Dharanesh Gangaiah, Kristen M. Webb, Tricia L. Humphreys, Kate R. Fortney, Evelyn Toh, Albert Tai, Samantha S. Katz, Allan Pillay, Cheng-Yen Chen, Sally A. Roberts, Robert S. Munson, Stanley M. Spinola

Background

Although cutaneous ulcers (CU) in the tropics is frequently attributed to Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, the causative agent of yaws, Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of CU in yaws-endemic regions of the South Pacific islands and Africa. H. ducreyi is generally susceptible to macrolides, but CU strains persist after mass drug administration of azithromycin for yaws or trachoma. H. ducreyi also causes genital ulcers (GU) and was thought to be exclusively transmitted by microabrasions that occur during sex. In human volunteers, the GU strain 35000HP does not infect intact skin; wounds are required to initiate infection. These data led to several questions: Are CU strains a new variant of H. ducreyi or did they evolve from GU strains? Do CU strains contain additional genes that could allow them to infect intact skin? Are CU strains susceptible to azithromycin?

Methodology/Principal Findings

To address these questions, we performed whole-genome sequencing and antibiotic susceptibility testing of 5 CU strains obtained from Samoa and Vanuatu and 9 archived class I and class II GU strains. Except for single nucleotide polymorphisms, the CU strains were genetically almost identical to the class I strain 35000HP and had no additional genetic content. Phylogenetic analysis showed that class I and class II strains formed two separate clusters and CU strains evolved from class I strains. Class I strains diverged from class II strains ~1.95 million years ago (mya) and CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP ~0.18 mya. CU and GU strains evolved under similar selection pressures. Like 35000HP, the CU strains were highly susceptible to antibiotics, including azithromycin.

Conclusions/Significance

These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions.


Tratto da: www.plos.org.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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We are not Charlie and we will never be.