Participa de “Derechos y privacidad en la era digital”

Este 1 de julio, Derechos Digitales será parte de la mesa de discusión “Derechos y privacidad en la era digital” en el marco del festival TagCDMX, que se está realizando en Ciudad de México.

La mesa busca explicar cómo se está regulando el paso de la información en la era digital y para ello contará con la presencia de Carlos Brito, coordinador de comunicación y del programa de neutralidad del sitio R3D; Carmen Alcázar, miembro de  Wikimedia México, y Gisela Pérez Acha, de Derechos Digitales, en un panel moderado por Pepe Flores de Fayerwayer.

“Derechos y Privacidad en la Era Digital” se realizará a las 16:45 en el salón Casino. Más información acá y acá.

Tratto da derechosdigitales.org

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Ciudadano Inteligente mantiene dominio de casopenta.cl tras disputa con Empresas PENTA

NIC Chile rechazó el requerimiento de revocación de dominio presentado por Empresas PENTA S.A. De acuerdo a la sentencia, el dominio es utilizado para informar sobre el caso judicial y no existe posibilidad de confusión con la marca PENTA.
El pasado 26 de junio, se dio a conocer el fallo final respecto de la solicitud de revocación realizada por Empresas PENTA S.A. por la titularidad del dominio casopenta.cl, registrado por la Fundación Ciudadano Inteligente y utilizado para informar sobre el intrincado caso judicial.

La sentencia del Juez Árbitro, Eduardo Lobos Vajovic, estima que Fundación Ciudadano Inteligente ha realizado un uso “responsable y de buena fe” del nombre de dominio en disputa, “dirigido de manera clara e inequívoca a dar a conocer información sobre un caso judicial” y que “no debiera significar para la Empresa, la amenaza de confusión, error, engaño y/o dilución de su marca PENTA”.

Contrario al argumento de la compañía de que el nombre de dominio contendría íntegramente la marca Penta, el Árbitro estimó que la protección marcaria invocada por el actor “no se extiende ni colisiona con el uso específico y limitado del nombre de dominio en disputa”, por lo que no es posible concluir que exista “un acto o finalidad de provocar un engaño entre las marcas comerciales del actor y dicho nombre de dominio”.

Tras la resolución, Fundación Ciudadano Inteligente se manifestó conforme por poder seguir informando a la ciudadanía sobre la arista judicial del conocido Caso Penta y lo que vendrá en la querella presentada por la organización contra los directivos de la empresa.Su director ejecutivo, Pablo Collada, explicó: “desde que se dieron a conocer las primeras filtraciones, sabíamos que iba a ser un caso importante para la política chilena. Casopenta.cl pretende acompañar el proceso judicial, dar información lo más completa posible y mostrar un punto de vista ciudadadano, donde las personas además puedan compartir sus comentarios y posturas. Ese espacio se mantendrá”.

Por otro lado, Claudio Ruiz, director ejecutivo de Derechos Digitales, organización experta en materia de derechos humanos en internet, consideró esta como “una victoria de la libertad de expresión” y  “un avance sustantivo respecto a situaciones similares acontecidas en el pasado”, manifestando además su deseo de que se trate de “un indicador respecto del valor que asigna el sistema de resolución de disputas de dominios a la expresión de discursos críticos, fundamentales para el correcto desarrollo democrático”.

 

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Simultaneous Brain–Cervical Cord fMRI Reveals Intrinsic Spinal Cord Plasticity during Motor Sequence Learning

by Shahabeddin Vahdat, Ovidiu Lungu, Julien Cohen-Adad, Veronique Marchand-Pauvert, Habib Benali, Julien Doyon

The spinal cord participates in the execution of skilled movements by translating high-level cerebral motor representations into musculotopic commands. Yet, the extent to which motor skill acquisition relies on intrinsic spinal cord processes remains unknown. To date, attempts to address this question were limited by difficulties in separating spinal local effects from supraspinal influences through traditional electrophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Here, for the first time, we provide evidence for local learning-induced plasticity in intact human spinal cord through simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord during motor sequence learning. Specifically, we show learning-related modulation of activity in the C6–C8 spinal region, which is independent from that of related supraspinal sensorimotor structures. Moreover, a brain–spinal cord functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that the initial linear relationship between the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex gradually fades away over the course of motor sequence learning, while the connectivity between spinal activity and cerebellum gains strength. These data suggest that the spinal cord not only constitutes an active functional component of the human motor learning network but also contributes distinctively from the brain to the learning process. The present findings open new avenues for rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries, as they demonstrate that this part of the central nervous system is much more plastic than assumed before. Yet, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this intrinsic functional plasticity in the spinal cord warrant further investigations.
Tratto da: www.plos.org.
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Dynamically Allocated Hub in Task-Evoked Network Predicts the Vulnerable Prefrontal Locus for Contextual Memory Retrieval in Macaques

by Takahiro Osada, Yusuke Adachi, Kentaro Miyamoto, Koji Jimura, Rieko Setsuie, Yasushi Miyashita

Neuroimaging and neurophysiology have revealed that multiple areas in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are activated in a specific memory task, but severity of impairment after PFC lesions is largely different depending on which activated area is damaged. The critical relationship between lesion sites and impairments has not yet been given a clear mechanistic explanation. Although recent works proposed that a whole-brain network contains hubs that play integrative roles in cortical information processing, this framework relying on an anatomy-based structural network cannot account for the vulnerable locus for a specific task, lesioning of which would bring impairment. Here, we hypothesized that (i) activated PFC areas dynamically form an ordered network centered at a task-specific “functional hub” and (ii) the lesion-effective site corresponds to the “functional hub,” but not to a task-invariant “structural hub.” To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments in macaques performing a temporal contextual memory task. We found that the activated areas formed a hierarchical hub-centric network based on task-evoked directed connectivity, differently from the anatomical network reflecting axonal projection patterns. Using a novel simulated-lesion method based on support vector machine, we estimated severity of impairment after lesioning of each area, which accorded well with a known dissociation in contextual memory impairment in macaques (impairment after lesioning in area 9/46d, but not in area 8Ad). The predicted severity of impairment was proportional to the network “hubness” of the virtually lesioned area in the task-evoked directed connectivity network, rather than in the anatomical network known from tracer studies. Our results suggest that PFC areas dynamically and cooperatively shape a functional hub-centric network to reallocate the lesion-effective site depending on the cognitive processes, apart from static anatomical hubs. These findings will be a foundation for precise prediction of behavioral impacts of damage or surgical intervention in human brains.
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The Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth in Health Facilities Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

by Meghan A. Bohren, Joshua P. Vogel, Erin C. Hunter, Olha Lutsiv, Suprita K. Makh, João Paulo Souza, Carolina Aguiar, Fernando Saraiva Coneglian, Alex Luíz Araújo Diniz, Özge Tunçalp, Dena Javadi, Olufemi T. Oladapo, Rajat Khosla, Michelle J. Hindin, A. Metin Gülmezoglu

Background

Despite growing recognition of neglectful, abusive, and disrespectful treatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, there is no consensus at a global level on how these occurrences are defined and measured. This mixed-methods systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence on the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities to inform the development of an evidence-based typology of the phenomenon.

Methods and Findings

We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases and grey literature using a predetermined search strategy to identify qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies on the mistreatment of women during childbirth across all geographical and income-level settings. We used a thematic synthesis approach to synthesize the qualitative evidence and assessed the confidence in the qualitative review findings using the CERQual approach. In total, 65 studies were included from 34 countries. Qualitative findings were organized under seven domains: (1) physical abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) verbal abuse, (4) stigma and discrimination, (5) failure to meet professional standards of care, (6) poor rapport between women and providers, and (7) health system conditions and constraints. Due to high heterogeneity of the quantitative data, we were unable to conduct a meta-analysis; instead, we present descriptions of study characteristics, outcome measures, and results. Additional themes identified in the quantitative studies are integrated into the typology.

Conclusions

This systematic review presents a comprehensive, evidence-based typology of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, and demonstrates that mistreatment can occur at the level of interaction between the woman and provider, as well as through systemic failures at the health facility and health system levels. We propose this typology be adopted to describe the phenomenon and be used to develop measurement tools and inform future research, programs, and interventions.


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