Decreto-legge in materia fallimentare: esame in Assemblea

Venerdì 31 7 2015

Il ddl n. 2021, di conversione in legge del decreto n. 83/2015 in materia fallimentare, civile di amministrazione della giustizia, già approvato dalla Camera, è all’ordine del giorno dell’Assemblea per lunedì 3 agosto, alle ore 16.
Il sen. Casson riferirà sul provvedimento, nel medesimo testo approvato dalla Camera dei deputati.

Nota breve del Servizio studi »

Tratto da www.senato.it.
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Stone Axe Of Burkamukk, The by BRUCE, Mary Grant

Mary Grant Bruce was an Australian children’s writer who spent one year collecting Aboriginal stories in Gippsland – a part of Victoria which it is thought had a dense population of the early Australians. Sadly, now there are no tribal people living, though their descendants are still around. This book contains 13 stories of the Gunaikurnai people, as told by their elders to the author. From the preface:
Year by year the old black tribes are dying out, and many of their legends and beliefs are dying with them. These legends deal with the world as the blacks knew it; with the Bush animals and birds; the powers of storm, flood, fire, thunder, and magic, and the beings who they thought controlled these powers; with the sun, moon and stars; and with the life and death of men and women.

The folktales of a people are the story of its soul, and it would be a pity if the native races of our country were to vanish altogether before we had collected enough of their legends to let their successors know what manner of people lived in Australia for thousands of years before the white man came.
(From the Preface by Mary Grant Bruce with a little help from annise)
This title is avalable for free download at: www.librivox.org.

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Levels of 8-OxodG Predict Hepatobiliary Pathology in Opisthorchis viverrini Endemic Settings in Thailand

by Prasert Saichua, Anna Yakovleva, Christine Kamamia, Amar R. Jariwala, Jiraporn Sithithaworn, Banchob Sripa, Paul J. Brindley, Thewarach Laha, Eimorn Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Narong Khuntikeo, Jason Mulvenna, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Jeffrey M. Bethony

Opisthorchis viverrini is distinct among helminth infections as it drives a chronic inflammatory response in the intrahepatic bile duct that progresses from advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Extensive research shows that oxidative stress (OS) plays a critical role in the transition from chronic O. viverrini infection to CCA. OS also results in the excision of a modified DNA lesion (8-oxodG) into urine, the levels of which can be detected by immunoassay. Herein, we measured concentrations of urine 8-oxodG by immunoassay from the following four groups in the Khon Kaen Cancer Cohort study: (1) O. viverrini negative individuals, (2) O. viverrini positive individuals with no APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, (3) O. viverrini positive individuals with APF as determined by abdominal ultrasound, and (4) O. viverrini induced cases of CCA. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the utility of creatinine-adjusted urinary 8-oxodG among these groups, along with demographic, behavioral, and immunological risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of urinary 8-oxodG for APF and CCA. Elevated concentrations of 8-oxodG in urine positively associated with APF and CCA in a strongly dose-dependent manner. Urinary 8-oxodG concentrations also accurately predicted whether an individual presented with APF or CCA compared to O. viverrini infected individuals without these pathologies. In conclusion, urinary 8-oxodG is a robust ‘candidate’ biomarker of the progression of APF and CCA from chronic opisthorchiasis, which is indicative of the critical role that OS plays in both of these advanced hepatobiliary pathologies. The findings also confirm our previous observations that severe liver pathology occurs early and asymptomatically in residents of O. viverrini endemic regions, where individuals are infected for years (often decades) with this food-borne pathogen. These findings also contribute to an expanding literature on 8-oxodG in an easily accessible bodily fluid (e.g., urine) as a biomarker in the multistage process of inflammation, fibrogenesis, and infection-induced cancer.
Tratto da: www.plos.org.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Fitness and Phenotypic Characterization of Miltefosine-Resistant Leishmania major

by Kimbra G. Turner, Paola Vacchina, Maricela Robles-Murguia, Mariha Wadsworth, Mary Ann McDowell, Miguel A. Morales

Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease with several clinical manifestations. Leishmania major is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which is largely characterized by ulcerative lesions appearing on the skin. Current treatments of leishmaniasis include pentavalent antimonials and amphotericin B, however, the toxic side effects of these drugs and difficulty with distribution makes these options less than ideal. Miltefosine (MIL) is the first oral treatment available for leishmaniasis. Originally developed for cancer chemotherapy, the mechanism of action of MIL in Leishmania spp. is largely unknown. While treatment with MIL has proven effective, higher tolerance to the drug has been observed, and resistance is easily developed in an in vitro environment. Utilizing stepwise selection we generated MIL-resistant cultures of L. major and characterized the fitness of MIL-resistant L. major. Resistant parasites proliferate at a comparable rate to the wild-type (WT) and exhibit similar apoptotic responses. As expected, MIL-resistant parasites demonstrate decreased susceptibility to MIL, which reduces after the drug is withdrawn from culture. Our data demonstrate metacyclogenesis is elevated in MIL-resistant L. major, albeit these parasites display attenuated in vitro and in vivo virulence and standard survival rates in the natural sandfly vector, indicating that development of experimental resistance to miltefosine does not lead to an increased competitive fitness in L. major.
Tratto da: www.plos.org.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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Modelling the Contributions of Malaria, HIV, Malnutrition and Rainfall to the Decline in Paediatric Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Disease in Malawi

by Nicholas A. Feasey, Dean Everett, E. Brian Faragher, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer, Arthur Kang’ombe, Brigitte Denis, Marko Kerac, Elizabeth Molyneux, Malcolm Molyneux, Andreas Jahn, Melita A. Gordon, Robert S. Heyderman

Introduction

Nontyphoidal Salmonellae (NTS) are responsible for a huge burden of bloodstream infection in Sub-Saharan African children. Recent reports of a decline in invasive NTS (iNTS) disease from Kenya and The Gambia have emphasised an association with malaria control. Following a similar decline in iNTS disease in Malawi, we have used 9 years of continuous longitudinal data to model the interrelationships between iNTS disease, malaria, HIV and malnutrition.

Methods

Trends in monthly numbers of childhood iNTS disease presenting at Queen’s Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 2002 to 2010 were reviewed in the context of longitudinal monthly data describing malaria slide-positivity among paediatric febrile admissions, paediatric HIV prevalence, nutritional rehabilitation unit admissions and monthly rainfall over the same 9 years, using structural equation models (SEM).

Results

Analysis of 3,105 iNTS episodes identified from 49,093 blood cultures, showed an 11.8% annual decline in iNTS (p < 0.001). SEM analysis produced a stable model with good fit, revealing direct and statistically significant seasonal effects of malaria and malnutrition on the prevalence of iNTS disease. When these data were smoothed to eliminate seasonal cyclic changes, these associations remained strong and there were additional significant effects of HIV prevalence.

Conclusions

These data suggest that the overall decline in iNTS disease observed in Malawi is attributable to multiple public health interventions leading to reductions in malaria, HIV and acute malnutrition. Understanding the impacts of public health programmes on iNTS disease is essential to plan and evaluate interventions.


Tratto da: www.plos.org.
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The Rapid-Heat LAMPellet Method: A Potential Diagnostic Method for Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis

by Javier Gandasegui, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Cristina Carranza-Rodríguez, José Luis Pérez-Arellano, Belén Vicente, Julio López-Abán, Antonio Muro

Background

Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium is a serious underestimated public health problem affecting 112 million people – particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Microscopic examination of urine samples to detect parasite eggs still remains as definitive diagnosis. This work was focussed on developing a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in human urine samples as a high-throughput, simple, accurate and affordable diagnostic tool to use in diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis.

Methodology/Principal Findings

A LAMP assay targeting a species specific sequence of S. haematobium ribosomal intergenic spacer was designed. The effectiveness of our LAMP was assessed in a number of patients´ urine samples with microscopy confirmed S. haematobium infection. For potentially large-scale application in field conditions, different DNA extraction methods, including a commercial kit, a modified NaOH extraction method and a rapid heating method were tested using small volumes of urine fractions (whole urine, supernatants and pellets). The heating of pellets from clinical samples was the most efficient method to obtain good-quality DNA detectable by LAMP. The detection limit of our LAMP was 1 fg/µL of S. haematobium DNA in urine samples. When testing all patients´ urine samples included in our study, diagnostic parameters for sensitivity and specificity were calculated for LAMP assay, 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 81.32%-100%) and 86.67% specificity (95% CI: 75.40%-94.05%), and also for microscopy detection of eggs in urine samples, 69.23% sensitivity (95% CI: 48.21% -85.63%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 93.08%-100%).

Conclusions/Significance

We have developed and evaluated, for the first time, a LAMP assay for detection of S. haematobium DNA in heated pellets from patients´ urine samples using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA extraction. The procedure has been named the Rapid-Heat LAMPellet method and has the potential to be developed further as a field diagnostic tool for use in urogenital schistosomiasis-endemic areas.


Tratto da: www.plos.org.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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We are not Charlie and we will never be.